The Third Protectorate Parliament — Richard Cromwell forced to reinstate the Commonwealth — Booth's uprising — Parliament overthrown by a military junta


20 Release of the Royalist conspirator Henry Norwood, imprisoned since January 1655. Source: RCE
27 The Third Protectorate Parliament assembles. After the Protector's and Lord Keeper's opening speeches, Chaloner Chute is elected Speaker of the Commons. RCII
28 The House of Commons sets aside a day of prayer for the success of the new Parliament, but arguments arise between republicans and army officers over the appointment of clergymen to conduct the services. RCII


  (February) Royalist conspirators Sir Humphrey Bennett, Robert Harley, James Halsall and others released on writs of habeas corpus, having been imprisoned since the uprising of 1655. Source: RCE
1 A bill for an Act of Recognition of Richard Cromwell as Lord Protector introduced into the House of Commons. HCJ
2 Sir Arthur Hesilrige leads the republican faction in a campaign to delay discussion of the Act of Recognition in the hope that Richard's authority will be compromised. RCII
3 The sister of the imprisoned Major-General Robert Overton petitions Parliament to hear his case. The House of Commons orders that he should be brought to Westminster from Jersey. HCJ
4 Parliament holds a day of fasting and humiliation to seek divine blessing on their endeavours. RCII
7 Second reading of the bill for the Act of Recognition; debates continue for another week. RCII
14 The House votes to recognise Richard as Lord Protector but before the bill is passed, his powers as Chief Magistrate should be more clearly defined. RCII, HCJ
15 A petition from London hostile to the Protectorate presented to Parliament calling for the preservation of the rights of the people against tyranny. RCII
17 The House of Commons begins the debate on recognition of the Upper House. RCII
  A committee appointed to report on the nation's finances. RCII
19 The Commons agree to the general principle that there should be a second chamber of Parliament, but heated debates continue for several weeks regarding its composition, with strong objections to the number of Army officers presently sitting. RCII
21 Parliament begins debating policy regarding the war between Sweden and Denmark. RCII
23 Colonel Barkstead called to appear before the Committee of Grievances to answer charges of misconduct during his lieutenancy of the Tower of London. RHCA1
24 Parliament votes to send a fleet to the Baltic for the preservation of Commonwealth trade and commerce. RCII
28 Release from the Tower of the Fifth Monarchist prisoners Thomas Venner, William Medley and Richard Martin. FMI


1 John Mordaunt created Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon by Charles II. Source: RCE
1 Charles II issues warrants to the Great Trust and Commission, a conspiracy ring formulated upon a broader base than the discredited Sealed Knot. RCE
5 Edward Massie returns to England to foment a Royalist uprising in Gloucestershire. ODNB
8 The Commons votes by a narrow majority to recognise the Upper House. Debate begins on the recognition of representatives from Scotland and Ireland. RCII
10 Royalist conspirators Sir Thomas Peyton and Sir Thomas Harris released from prison on security. RCE
16 Thomas Bampfield appointed Speaker of the House of Commons following the death of Chaloner Chute. ODNB
  Major-General Robert Overton brought before Parliament where he protests his innocence of conspiring against the Protectorate and is released from his four-year imprisonment. ODNB
21 The Commons votes to accept MPs for Scottish constituencies by 211 votes to 120. RCII
23 The Commons votes to accept MPs for Irish constituencies by 156 votes to 106. RCII, HCJ
25 A petition presented in Parliament from 70 Royalists transported to Barbados after Penruddock's Uprising of 1655. Republicans and Royalist sympathisers use the petition as a pretext to attack the Protectorate, but nothing is done for the transported Royalists. RCII
28 The House of Commons votes to transact with the Upper House by 198 votes to 125. RCII
  (End of March) Edward Montagu appointed commander of a fleet of forty ships to sail for the Baltic to defend England's commercial interests and to counteract Dutch attempts to intervene in the war between Sweden and Denmark. CN
  (End of March) The republican Edmund Ludlow begins negotiating with discontented officers led by Fleetwood and Disbrowe at Wallingford House to discuss strategy against the Protectorate. RCII


2 Richard gives his consent to a meeting of the General Council of Officers. Source: RCII
6 The Council of Officers presents a petition to Richard calling for soldiers' indemnity from prosecution for all actions carried out during Oliver's Protectorship and for Parliament to settle arrears of pay. RCII
  Montagu's fleet arrives at Elsinore to find the forces of Charles X of Sweden besieging Copenhagen. Montagu attempts to persuade the Dutch not to intervene on Denmark's side. ODNB
7 The parliamentary committee investigating the nation's finances reports its findings: the national debt stands at £2,500,000 with an annual shortfall of £300,000. Pay arrears for the armed forces are nearly £900,000. RCII
8 Richard sends a copy of the officers' petition to both Houses for their consideration. The Commons reads the petition but makes no response. The Upper House postpones consideration. RCII
12 A committee appointed to impeach Major-General William Boteler for illegally seizing property during the Rule of the Major-Generals. HCJ
13 Army officers hold a prayer meeting and fast with sermons by Hugh Peter, John Owen and John Griffith. RCII
14 Thomas Grove MP appointed to carry a declaration from the Commons to the Upper House regarding a public fast for their concurrence — the first practical recognition of the Upper House by the Commons. RCII, HCJ
16 A committee appointed to consider how expenses could be reduced and how arrears for the army and navy could be paid. RCII
17 Richard holds a meeting with his supporters among the Army officers. Howard, Goffe, Ingoldsby and others swear allegiance and offer to arrest the leaders of the Wallingford House party. Richard is dissuaded from this step by Thurloe, but agrees to order the dissolution of the Council of Officers. RCII
18 Parliament votes that the General Council of Officers should henceforth assemble only if authorised by the Protector and Parliament. All officers must take an oath against forcible coercion of Parliament. Richard orders the dissolution of the Council of Officers. RCII
21 Parliament begins debating re-organisation of the army and the formation of a new militia. RCII
  Lieutenant-General Fleetwood refuses Richard's summons to come to Whitehall. Soldiers ordered to arrest Fleetwood ask to be excused such a task. Fleetwood calls a general rendezvous of the army at St James's; Richard calls a counter-rendezvous at Whitehall but the soldiers almost unanimously follow Fleetwood. RCII
  Major-General Disbrowe confronts Richard at Whitehall; he is forced to submit to the army and to order the dissolution of Parliament. RCII
22 Lord-Keeper Nathaniel Fiennes formally dissolves the Third Protectorate Parliament. RCII
23 A proclamation issued ordering all Catholics and Royalists to leave London until June; an impending uprising is the excuse used by the Council of Officers to justify the dissolution of Parliament. RCII
26 Junior officers petition for the return of the Long Parliament; petitions for the re-establishment of the Commonwealth begin to pour in from London and the provinces. RCII


1 A truce declared between France and Spain. Sir William Lockhart, commander of English forces in Flanders, observes the truce while awaiting further orders from England. Source: RCII
2 Colonel Lambert and other officers discuss terms and conditions for the return of the Commonwealth with leading republicans Vane, Ludlow and Hesilrige. RCII
3 Publication of the first issue of the Weekly Post, the first of several unofficial newspapers to be published under the freedom of the press allowed during the reinstated Commonwealth. RCII
4 Alan Brodrick and a group of conspirators that includes Lord Falkland and Sir Allen Apsley petitions Sir Edward Hyde to receive orders directly from the King rather than through Viscount Mordaunt and the Great Trust. RCE
5 The Council of Officers resolves to recall the Rump Parliament, expelled by Cromwell in April 1653. RCII
6 Messengers sent to summon members of the Rump Parliament to reconvene at Westminster. RCII
7 Headed by the Speaker, William Lenthall, around fifty members of the Rump Parliament ceremonially enter the House of Commons. An interim 7-member Committee of Safety appointed until the establishment of a new Council of State. RCII
8 Properties in London searched for Royalist agents. RCE
9 William Prynne, Sir George Booth and other MPs excluded from Parliament during Pride's Purge in 1648 attempt to take their seats. Parliament rules that only members who have taken the Oath of Engagement (1649) are entitled to sit. RCII
  Four members added to the Committee of Safety. RCII
  Letters read in Parliament from the armies in Scotland and Ireland concurring with the actions of the English army and supporting the new Parliament. RCII
  A committee appointed to examine revenues. RCII
10 A committee appointed to consider cases of prisoners of conscience and how they might be discharged. The Quaker James Nayler is one of those later freed. RCII
11 An act passed authorising magistrates and local officials to continue the exercise of their functions under the legal authority of Parliament. AOI
  A treaty signed at The Hague between England, France and the United Provinces to mediate for peace between Denmark and Sweden. RCII
12 The Committee of Safety nominates a seven-member commission to appoint army officers: Fleetwood, Lambert, Hesilrige, Disbrowe, Berry, Vane, Ludlow. The Committee recommends that Fleetwood continues as commander-in-chief of the armies in England and Scotland. RCII
  Colonel Lambert presents a petition detailing the Army's expectations of the new Parliament. RCII
14 Parliament passes an act for the Great Seal of England, which omits any reference to Scotland as part of the Commonwealth. AOI
18 In a letter to Lieutenant-General Fleetwood, General Monck and officers of the army in Scotland declare their loyalty to the newly restored Commonwealth. RCII
  The Committee of Safety reports to Parliament assurances of loyalty from the army in Flanders. RCII
  A committee appointed to consider the re-incorporation of England and Scotland. RCII
19 Parliament elects a new 31-member Council of State to replace the interim Committee of Safety. The Council immediately begins investigations into the alleged preparations for a Royalist insurrection and orders the arrest of a number of known Royalists. RCII
21 Parliament resolves to safeguard toleration for all Christians, with the exception of Catholics, Episcopalians and extreme sectarians. A gospel-preaching ministry to be maintained; the universities to be reformed. RCII
22 The Council of State appoints a committee to investigate the activities of London gunsmiths suspected of selling arms to Royalists. RCE
24 The Council of State appoints a standing committee for intelligence, headed by Thomas Scot. RCE
  Warrants prepared for the arrest of Royalist conspirators Edward Massie, Captain Titus, Sir Henry Moore and Colonel Adam Browne. All but Browne elude capture. RCE
25 Richard Cromwell's abdication of his offices read in Parliament together with a schedule of his debts. Parliament agrees to assume his public debts and appoints a committee to consider a comfortable subsistence for him. RCII
  Preliminaries to a peace treaty signed between France and Spain. England not represented at the negotiations. RCII
31 Parliament appoints a commission to manage the admiralty and the navy. AOI


5 John Bradshaw, Thomas Terryll and John Fountaine appointed Commissioners of the Great Seal. Source: AOI
6 Parliament passes a resolution that it will not sit after 7 May 1660. RCII
7 Parliament commissions Charles Fleetwood commander-in-chief of the armies in England and Scotland but the power to appoint or promote officers is kept by Parliament. All military commissions to be signed by the Speaker. AOI, RCII
  Parliament resolves that the government of Ireland should be entrusted to nominated commissioners rather than a single person. RCII
  At a meeting of officers at Major-General Disbrowe's house, Colonel Lambert denounces the subordination of the Army to Parliament. RCII
8 Parliament passes an Act appointing a seven-man commission for the nomination and examination of officers. AOI
  Colonel Hacker and his officers receive their commissions from the Speaker — the first of the officers approved by Parliament to be appointed. A number of naval officers also commissioned, including Vice-Admiral John Lawson as commander of the James. RCII
9 A letter from General Monck read in Parliament requesting that no alterations be made to the officers under his command in Scotland but Parliament insists upon replacing those officers in his army regarded as being politically unreliable with its own trusted supporters. RCII
  Parliament approves the Council of State's appointment of an additional three commissioners to join Montagu on the embassy to Sweden and Denmark: Algernon Sidney, Sir Robert Honeywood and Thomas Boone. The appointment indicates the Council's mistrust of Montagu. RCII
10 Viscount Mordaunt urges the King to press ahead with plans for a Royalist uprising against the Commonwealth. RCE
15 Henry Cromwell resigns from the office of Lord Deputy of Ireland. ODNB
  Parliament orders the release from imprisonment on security of Royalist conspirators Sir Thomas Armstrong and John Weston. HCJ
18 Parliament passes an Act to continue the Cromwellian tax assessment. Whitehall and Somerset House to be sold towards settling arrears of pay in the armed forces (but no buyers are found). TR
23 Parliament votes to collect all the monthly assessment tax for the year over a period of six months in the hope of easing the financial crisis over arrears of pay. RCII
27 A petition signed by 15,000 freeborn people of the Commonwealth against the payment of tithes read in Parliament. However, Parliament resolves that until a better method can be found, tithes should continue in order to encourage godly, learned clergymen. RCII, HCJ


1 The Council of State orders the seizure of horses belonging to suspected conspirators in London. Source RCE
3 An anonymous placard set up at the Exchange in London denouncing Sir Richard Willys as a traitor to the Royalist cause. RCII, RCE
4 Edmund Ludow appointed commander-in-chief of the army in Ireland. HCJ
7 Parliament appoints commissioners to re-organise the London militia. RCII
  Parliament appoints five commissioners to govern Ireland: Colonel John Jones, William Steele, Robert Goodwin, Miles Corbet and Colonel Matthew Thomlinson. RCII, AOI
8 The Council of State orders Vice-Admiral John Lawson to sea with a squadron to watch the Flanders coast for signs of preparation for a Royalist invasion force. All infantry and cavalry regiments to be recruited to full strength. The garrisons at Newark and Nottingham strengthened with troops from Newcastle. RCII
9 Viscount Mordaunt meets Lord Willoughby, Edward Massie, Sir John Grenville, Captain Titus and other conspirators of the Great Trust. 1 August chosen as the day for the uprising. RCII, RCE
9-13 The Council of State orders militia commanders throughout England to prevent assemblies and to be watchful for signs of Royalist activity. Orders issued to safeguard places the Royalists are expected to attempt to seize, including Chepstow, Chichester, Arundel, Lewes, Yarmouth. Infantry regiments in London mobilised. RCII
12 Parliament passes the Act of Indemnity and Pardon, granting indemnity for actions carried out under the authority of the Protectorate for all those who subscribe to a declaration to be loyal to the Commonwealth. Titles and grants of office under the Protectorate declared null and void. AOI, RCII
13 Colonel Lambert argues with Ludlow and Hesilrige over the terms of the Act of Indemnity because it leaves officers at the mercy of Parliament. RCII
14 The Council of State orders that England and Wales is to be divided into eleven regions with colonels appointed to command the militia and regular troops within them. The defences of Coventry, Gloucester and Bristol to be strengthened. Warrants issued for the arrest of Viscount Mordaunt and other Royalists suspected of involvement in the conspiracy. RCII
18 The King orders Sir Richard Willys to come to Brussels to defend himself against the rumours of his treachery. RCE
19 Lieutenant-General Ludlow and Colonel Jones set out for Ireland. RCII
20 The commissioners Sidney, Honeywood and Boone join Montagu in the Baltic Sound. RCII
  Arrest of the Royalist conspirators William Legge and Andrew Newport. RCE
22 Arrest of the Royalist conspirators Sir John Packington and Samuel Sandys in Worcestershire.RCE
23 Sir John Grenville summoned to appear before the Council of State. He is released on parole after questioning. RCE
24 A meeting of Royalists at Chipping Norton broken up by soldiers from Oxford. RCE
25 Conspirator Sir Hugh Middleton arrested at Bristol. RCE
26 Parliament passes an act for the settlement of the militia in England and Wales. RCII
27 A bill for a new act of union between England and Scotland introduced into Parliament. RCII
  A gathering of Royalists at Pembridge broken up by soldiers from Hereford. RCE
30 Parliament approves the precautions taken by the Council of State against the Royalist conspiracy. RCII
  The Sealed Knot sends out messengers with news that the Council of State has penetrated the conspiracy and that the uprising is abandoned. RCE
31 Edward Massie and other Royalist conspirators arrested at Gloucester. Massie escapes the same evening. RCII
  Arrests of bands of Royalists preparing for the regional uprisings take place all over the country. RCE


1 Sir George Booth musters 500 Royalists at Warrington in Lancashire and advances to a rendezvous at Rowton Heath near Chester: the beginning of Booth's Uprising. Source: RCII
2 Booth's rebels occupy the city of Chester but the castle remains in the hands of government troops. Booth issues a series of declarations calling for a free Parliament. RCII
2-8 Major-General Egerton marches with a party from Chester to join Sir Thomas Myddelton at Chirk Castle. Myddelton and Egerton advance to Wrexham in north Wales, where they declare for the King. RCII
5 The Council of State commissions Colonel Lambert to lead forces against the rebellion in the north. RCII
6 Charles II leaves Brussels for Calais in the expectation of crossing to England when the uprising gathers pace. RCII
7 Sir George Booth marches for Manchester with around 4,000 men. RCII
9 Colonel Thomas Panton postpones an uprising in London when government troops are posted on the streets. RCE
10 Viscount Mordaunt and a number of accomplices gather at Tooting in Surrey. RCE
12 Lord Byron with about 100 horse advances to attack a militia troop at Southwell in Nottinghamshire but flee when the militia stand firm. RCE
  Supported by Presbyterian townsmen, Colonel Charles White declares for the King at Derby. RCE
13 Viscount Mordaunt and about eighty insurgents declare for the King at Barnstead Down in Surrey; they disperse at the approach of government troops. RCE
14 Lambert sends Colonel Mitchell to occupy Derby with government troops. Mitchell meets no resistance and declares Booth and his followers traitors to the state. RCE
15 Lambert arrives at Nantwich in Cheshire and gathers reinforcements. RCII
18 Lambert sets out for Chester with a force of around 1,200 horse and 3,000 foot. On learning that Booth's main force is near Northwich, Lambert marches to meet them. RCII
19 Colonel Lambert scatters Sir George Booth's forces at Winnington Bridge in Cheshire with minimal casualties. RCII
  Colonel Panton again calls off an uprising in London when troops are deployed to patrol the streets. RCE
20 Lambert recaptures Chester and sends detachments to suppress the insurgents at Chirk Castle and Liverpool. RCII
23 Parliament votes to confer a gift of £1,000 on Lambert, to buy a jewel as a reward for his service. Lambert distributes his gift among his soldiers. Sir Arthur Hesilrige blocks a motion that Lambert should be promoted to major-general. RCII
24 Chirk Castle surrenders to Lambert's forces. RCE
  Sir George Booth arrested at an inn at Newport Pagnell in Buckinghamshire disguised as a woman. ODNB
  Montagu's fleet sails from the Baltic Sound for England, greatly weakening the influence of the English commissioners. CN
27 Parliament appoints a committee to sequester the estates of Sir George Booth, Sir Thomas Myddelton and other leaders of the conspiracy and uprising. RCII


2 Parliament resolves that the Lord Mayor of London, John Ireton, should hold office for another year. Source: RCII
3 Sir Henry Vane and Sir Arthur Hesilrige argue over whether militia officers should take a new oath of loyalty to the Commonwealth. The argument is symptomatic of a deeper division between them: Vane believes that the Army should be involved in the settlement of the government; Hesilrige wants the Army excluded. RCII
6 Montagu's fleet arrives back in England. CN
7 Viscount Mordaunt escapes to France. RCII
8 Parliament orders the release from prison of James Nayler. HCJ
10 General-at-Sea Edward Montagu reports to the Council of State. Under suspicion of involvement in Royalist conspiracies, his commission is revoked and he retires to his country estate. TR
16 Officers of Lambert's army meet at Derby and draw up a petition setting out their demands for the government of the nation. RCII, TR
20 Lambert arrives in London. He attends daily meetings at Wallingford House with Fleetwood, Disbrowe, Berry and other senior officers. RCII
22 Sir Arthur Hesilrige brings the Derby Petition to the attention of Parliament. He proposes that Lambert should be sent to the Tower. The House resolves that the Petition should be brought before Parliament. RCII
23 Parliament debates the Derby Petition in secrecy. Fleetwood ordered to admonish the officers responsible and to prevent any further petitioning of Parliament by soldiers. RCII
24 The Common Council of London presents a petition to Parliament calling for a free election for the office of Lord Mayor. RCII
28 Parliament votes to allow a free election for the office of Lord Mayor of London. RCII


4 Parliament resolves that Army arrears should be paid from the proceeds of the sale of land belonging to Royalists involved in the recent insurrection and from the sale of forests and chases. Source: RCII
5 Major-General Disbrowe and a delegation of officers presents another petition to Parliament vindicating the Derby Petition and making further demands for soldiers' rights and the settlement of the nation. RCII
8 Parliament begins discussion of the Army petition. RCII
12 On learning that nine senior officers have been soliciting additional signatures for the Army petition, Parliament revokes their commissions: Lambert, Disborowe, Berry, Kelsey, Ashfield, Cobbett, Creed, Packer and Barrow. At the same time, Fleetwood's commission as commander-in-chief is annulled and seven commissioners appointed to govern the Army: Fleetwood, Ludlow, Monck, Hesilrige, Walton, Morley and Overton. RCII
  The new army commissioners Hesilrige, Walton and Morley order two regiments to guard Westminster Hall. RCII
  John Lambert and the cashiered officers resolve to expel Parliament. RCII
13 Regiments loyal to Lambert encircle Westminster and prevent MPs from approaching Parliament. In order to avoid bloodshed, the Council of State orders the regiments stationed at Westminster Hall to return to barracks. Lambert orders two or three companies to remain at Westminster as a guard. RCII
14 The Council of State orders the withdrawal of the guards around Parliament but the order is ignored. RCII
  The Council of Officers suspends republican sympathisers from their commands. Representatives sent to gain support from the armies in Ireland and Scotland. RCII
15 The Council of Officers appoints a ten-member Committee of Safety to consider how to carry on the government. RCII
18 Charles Fleetwood re-appointed commander-in-chief of the army. RCII
  General George Monck gathers his most trusted officers in Edinburgh and resolves to support Parliament against the military junta in England. He begins an extensive purge to dismiss officers who support Lambert's coup. RCII
20 General Monck writes to Fleetwood, Lambert and William Lenthall, Speaker of the Commons, indicating his disapproval of the coup and demanding the return of Parliament. RCII
  John Milton denounces the coup in a letter circulated privately. RCII
24 Publication of The Army's Plea for their Present Practice in which the junta claims to have acted in defence of the liberties of the nation. RCII
25 The Council of State dissolved; the Committee of Safety re-appointed by the Council of Officers. RCII
  Nine members of the Council of State continue to meet in secret to agitate for the restoration of Parliament: Thomas Scot, Sir Arthur Hesilrige, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Henry Neville, Robert Wallop, Josiah Berners, Robert Reynolds, Colonel Morley and Colonel Walton. RCII
  Fleetwood writes to Monck proposing that he sends representatives to London to confer with representatives of the army junta. RCII
26 Edmund Ludlow, having returned to London, is appointed to the Committee of Safety. RCII
27 John Evelyn publishes An Apology for the Royal Party, in which he calls openly for the restoration of the monarchy. RCII
28 The Committee of Safety resolves to send a force against Monck; Lambert appointed commander rather than Fleetwood. TR
  The war between France and Spain ends with the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees. RCII


  (Early November) A four-man delegation goes to Edinburgh to justify the reasons for the expulsion of Parliament to General Monck. Consisting of the divines Joseph Caryl and Matthew Barker and the former major-generals Whalley and Goffe, the delegation fails to convince Monck. Source: RCII
1 Republican Colonels Okey, Sanders, Alured and Markham sign The Humble Representation of Some Officers protesting at actions of the army leaders. RCII
  A group of officers and civilians appointed to discuss a new government. RCII
3 Lambert marches north from London with up to 12,000 troops to block Monck's route into England. RCII
  At a council of war in Edinburgh, Monck agrees to send three officers to represent him at talks with the junta in London. RCII
8 Major-General Thomas Morgan joins Monck in Edinburgh with a letter of support from Lord Fairfax. RCII
9 Thomas Scot and Anthony Ashley Cooper unsuccessfully try to persuade the Common Council of London to petition for the restoration of Parliament. ODNB
12 Monck's representatives arrive in London for talks with the Council of Officers. RCII
  (Mid-November) Lambert's army arrives in Newcastle. RCII
15 Monck's representatives reach agreement with the Council of Officers, but make major concessions: although a Parliament is to be summoned, its constitution would remain under army control. RCII
  Monck calls a meeting of Scottish nobles, gentry, burgesses and magistrates at Edinburgh to make arrangements for security in Scotland while he marches to secure the Parliament in England. RCII
16 Former members of the Council of State headed by Scot and Cooper meet with Monck's representatives in London and argue for the return of Parliament. ODNB
  Publication of a Remonstrance with 450 names appended protesting at the Army's actions and calling for the return of Parliament. ODNB
24 The former members of the Council of State write to Monck granting him a commission as commander-in-chief of all military units in England and Scotland and empowering him to take military action against the enemies of Parliament if necessary. ODNB
  Monck complains that his representatives have misunderstood their instructions and resolves to send two new representatives to re-negotiate the agreement with Lambert's officers at Newcastle. RCII
29 Despite complaints at the time being wasted, Lambert's officers agree to a meeting with Monck's representatives at Newcastle. RCII


1 With demands for the restoration of Parliament increasing, the Committee of Safety issues a proclamation prohibiting the collection of signatures for petitions. Source: TR
3 Sir Arthur Hesilrige, Colonel Morley and Colonel Walton go to secure Portsmouth for Parliament. They are warmly greeted by the republican governor of Portsmouth, Nathaniel Whelan. RCII
  Publication of the first issue of Mercurius Britanicus, a newspaper authorised by Monck to promote his cause and to criticise the English officers and their journal Mercurius Politicus. RCII
5 London apprentices defiantly present a petition to the Common Council demanding the return of Parliament and a free election. Soldiers are attacked and a riot ensues. Colonel Hewson orders his troops to fire on the mob and a number of apprentices are killed or wounded. RCII
6 The Admiralty commissioners order all captains at Portsmouth to secure their ships and to obey orders only from the Admiralty and the Committee of Safety. CN
8 General Monck establishes his headquarters at Coldstream on the Scottish border with four regiments of horse and six of foot. RCII
9 Vice-Admiral John Lawson tells an emissary from Fleetwood that the only way to cure the nation's ills is by the restoration of Parliament. CN
10 Fleetwood and the Council of Officers issue a declaration that a Parliament will meet in February 1660, under Army supervision. RCII
12 The military junta foils a plot by Colonel Okey and former members of the Council of State to seize the Tower of London. The lieutenant of the Tower, Colonel Fitch, arrested for collaboration with the conspirators. RCII
13 Scot and Okey seek refuge with the Channel fleet after the failure of their attempt to seize the Tower. Vice-Admiral Lawson and the captains of the Channel fleet issue a declaration of support for Parliament and pledge to restore it by force if necessary. RCII
  Sir Hardress Waller and other officers seize Dublin Castle, arrest Colonel Jones and the other commissioners, and declare for the restoration of the Long Parliament. ODNB, RCII
14 Lawson's fleet of twenty-two ships sets sail from the Downs for the Thames. CN
17 Sir Henry Vane and Richard Salwey sail downriver from Tilbury as representatives of the Committee of Safety to meet and negotiate with Lawson. CN
18 Vice-Admiral Lawson furiously denounces the military junta during negotiations with Sir Henry Vane. CN
20 Two regiments of horse and one of foot sent to besiege Portsmouth are persuaded to join the garrison and declare for Parliament. RCII
21 The Committee of Safety and Council of Officers learn of the defection of the troops sent to Portsmouth and of Lawson's intention to blockade London. RCII
  Election for the Common Council of London returns a number of openly Royalist councillors. RCII
23 Faced with almost universal opposition, the Council of Officers disperses. RCII
24 A demoralised Fleetwood returns the keys of the Parliament House to the Speaker, William Lenthall. RCII
  Colonels Okey and Alured muster the troops in London at Lincoln's Inn Field and declare for Parliament. RCII
26 The Rump Parliament re-assembles. The Speaker William Lenthall and about forty MPs convene at Whitehall. Twenty-two of the Members expelled at Pride's Purge are not permitted to enter the Parliament chamber. RCII
  Parliament orders the payment of a month's arrears to private soldiers. All forces raised without Parliament's authority, except by General Monck, are to be disbanded. Regiments in the north with Lambert ordered to return to their quarters. RCII
27 General Lambert and his officers decide to march south in the hope of retrieving the situation in London. Robert Lilburne sent ahead to secure York. TR
29 Sir Arthur Hesilrige returns to London from Portsmouth with Colonels Morley and Walton and the regiments that have defected. RCII
30 A ballot held for a new Council of State. RCII
  Lord Fairfax gathers forces in Yorkshire and marches on York. ODNB
31 Lieutenant-General Ludlow returns to Dublin but is threatened with arrest by the officers who have seized command. ODNB
  Army commissioners Hesilrige, Morley and Walton ordered by Parliament to appoint regimental commanders. RCII


AOI: Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum C.H. Firth and R.S. Raitt (eds), 1911

CN: Cromwell's Navy, Bernard Capp (Oxford 1989)

FMI: The Fifth Monarchist Insurrections, C. Burrage, (English Historical Review vol.xxv, London 1910)

HCJ: House of Commons Journal

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

RCE: Royalist Conspiracy in England 1649-60, David Underdown (New Haven 1960)

RCII: The Restoration of Charles II 1658-60, Godfrey Davies (San Marino 1955)

RHCA1: The Regimental History of Cromwell's Army vol. i, C.H. Firth & G. Davies (Oxford 1940)

TR: The Restoration, Ronald Hutton (Oxford 1985)

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