Penruddock's uprising — the capture of Jamaica — the rule of the Major-Generals


  (Early January) Arrest in London of Major Norwood and others involved in supplying weapons to Royalist conspirators in the provinces. Widespread arrests of conspirators follow, including that of Richard Thornhill, a leader of the Action Party. Source: RCE
1 Parliament votes to abolish the extensions to the franchise recently agreed. HCP3
3 Parliament affirms its right to define what is to be regarded as heretical and blasphemous, without the consent of the Protector. HCP3
  Vincent Gookin and Dr. William Petty anonymously publish The Great Case of Transplantation, which criticises the transplantations in Ireland. HCP4
4 General Monck orders the arrest of Major-General Robert Overton and sends him to London under suspicion of plotting against the Protectorate. HCP3
5 Parliament votes for a reduction in funding for the Army and Navy. HCP3
6 Government newspapers hint that the dissolution of Parliament may be brought forward. HCP3
12 Parliament concedes that the Protector should be consulted in the definition of heresies that are to be exempted from toleration. HCP3
15 Parliamentary committee appointed to prepare charges of blasphemy against the Socinian John Biddle. HCP3
  A coalition of MPs loyal to the government and moderate opposition MPs votes to increase the grant to the Protector. HCP3
  General-at-Sea Robert Blake's fleet in the Mediterranean sails from Leghorn for the Barbary Coast but is driven back by storms. RB
16 The coalition MPs vote to fund the armed forces at the present level for a further five years. However, the coalition breaks up over the terms of the new constitution, leaving the Protectorate's opponents once again in the majority. HCP3
  Robert Overton committed to the Tower; he remains a prisoner without being brought to trial for the next four years. HCP3
17 Parliament votes that the Protector must either accept or reject their proposals for a constitutional bill. HCP3
18 Parliamentary committee formed to supervise the disbandment of part of the Army. HCP3
20 MPs vote for Parliament to control the militia rather than the Protector. HCP3
22 Cromwell dissolves the First Protectorate Parliament, taking the earliest possible opportunity allowed under the Instrument of Government. HCP3
27 Lord-Deputy Fleetwood authorises courts-martial in Ireland where government officials can order the summary execution of captured Tories. HCP4
29 The Western Design expedition arrives at Carlisle Bay, Barbados. Dutch vessels trading with Barbados seized under the terms of the Navigation Act. HCP4
31 Blake's fleet sails from Leghorn. RB


6 Cromwell interviews the imprisoned Fifth Monarchist John Rogers after members of his congregation petition for his release. Refusing to modify his criticism of the government, Rogers remains in prison. Source: HCP3
  Thurloe's agents arrest three leading conspirators of the Action Party: Sir Humphrey Bennett, Colonel Grey and John Weston. RCE
8 Cromwell and the Council of State pass an ordinance lowering the Assessment Tax. AOI
  General-at-Sea Robert Blake's fleet arrives at Tunis to open negotiations for the release of English slaves. When the Dey of Tunis proves uncooperative, Blake blockades Porto Farina. HCP4
  Charles II sends Daniel O'Neill to England to mediate between the Action Party, which wants an immediate uprising against the Protectorate, and the Sealed Knot, which recommends waiting for a more favourable time. HCP3, RCE
10 Arrest of the Leveller John Wildman for plotting an uprising against the Protectorate. HCP3
11 Arrest of the King's agent Daniel O'Neill upon his arrival at Dover. RCE
12 Arrest of Lord Grey of Groby on suspicion of complicity in John Wildman's plot. HCP3
  Cromwell orders the seizure of all horses in London and Westminster after intercepted letters reveal details of a projected Royalist uprising in London. HCP3
  Premature rendezvous of Royalist insurgents from Somerset and Wiltshire at Salisbury which alerts the authorities that the uprising is imminent. Several prominent western Royalists arrested in the aftermath. RCE
13 Cromwell shows evidence of the Royalist plot to the Lord Mayor and Common Council of London. HCP3
15 Announcement of a new commission to regulate a militia for the defence of the City of London. HCP3
  Cromwell issues a proclamation announcing freedom of religion within the Protectorate providing the law is not broken. HCP3
16 Cromwell reluctantly orders the imprisonment of the Fifth Monarchists leaders Thomas Harrison, John Carew, Nathaniel Rich and Hugh Courtney after they refuse to promise to live peaceably. HCP3
19 The Earl of Rochester and Sir Joseph Wagstaffe land at Margate in Kent and make their way to London, planning to lead the Royalist insurrection. HCP3
20 Failure of an attempt to arrest the Leveller Edward Sexby at Portland. Sexby escapes to the Continent. HCP3
c.20 Court-martial of those implicated in Overton's conspiracy in the army in Scotland, all of whom are cashiered. HCP3
22 Blake leaves six frigates under the command of Captain Stayner to maintain the blockade of Porto Farina while he sails to Cagliari on Sardinia to reprovision his ships. EM1
  Helped by Royalist sympathisers, Charles II's agent Daniel O'Neill escapes from Dover Castle and makes for London. HCP3, RCE
24 A proclamation issued forbidding horse racing for six months, so that race meetings cannot be used as a cover for Royalist conspirators. HCP3
26 Cromwell orders the release of the Quaker George Fox after interviewing him at Whitehall. HCP3
  Charles II at Dusseldorf en route to Middelburg, from where he plans to cross to England when the uprising against the Protectorate gains momentum. HCP3
27 The Earl of Rochester leaves London to lead the Royalist insurrection in Yorkshire; Sir Joseph Wagstaffe goes to the West. RCE


7 Lord-Deputy Charles Fleetwood orders the seizure of the corn of Irishmen who had not obeyed the transplantation order; the corn sold for the benefit of those who had already set out for Clare and Connacht. Source: HCP4
8 Co-ordinated Royalist insurrections around England fail to ignite. HCP3, RCE
9 Colonel Lawrence publishes The Interest of England in the Irish Transplantation in defence of the policy of transplantation. HCP4
11 200 Royalists assemble at Clarendon Park in Wiltshire under the command of Colonel John Penruddock and Sir Joseph Wagstaffe (Penruddock's Uprising). HCP3
12 Penruddock's insurgents occupy Salisbury where they arrest two judges and the High Sheriff of Wiltshire. HCP3
  Cromwell appoints John Disbrowe Major-General of the West, with orders to suppress Penruddock's Uprising. HCP3
13 Penruddock's insurgents at Yeovil in Somerset. HCP3
14 Major-General Disbrowe at Newbury, Berkshire, in pursuit of Penruddock. HCP3
  Commissioners appointed to organise the militia in twenty-one towns and rural districts where insurgency is judged likely to break out. HCP3
  Penruddock's insurgents defeated by Colonel Unton Croke at South Molton in Devon. Penruddock arrested; Sir Joseph Wagstaffe escapes. HCP3
15 Blake sails from Cagliari for Tunis. EM1
17 Arrival in England of Peter Coyet as ambassador of Charles X of Sweden. Coyet's instructions are to ratify the commercial treaty of April 1654 and to seek permission to raise troops for the Swedish service. HCP4
19 Courts-martial established in Ireland for the trial and execution of those who had failed to obey the orders for transplantation. However, the courts are ordered to substitute transportation to the colonies for the death penalty where possible, and that no executions are to be carried out without government sanction. HCP4
20 The Earl of Rochester arrested at Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire but bribes the innkeeper in whose charge he had been left and escapes the next day. HCP3
  Five thousand militiamen mustered in London and reviewed by Richard and Henry Cromwell. HCP3
21 On Barbados, Penn and Venables muster nearly 7,000 troops, including those enlisted from the colony itself. HCP4
  Blake returns to Tunis and makes another attempt to negotiate with the Dey. When this attempt fails, Blake sails to Trapani on Sicily to disguise his intention to attack the Tunisian fleet. HCP4
24 Cromwell announces that the danger from the Royalist insurrection is past, and orders the militia to stand down. HCP3
26 Another order issued in Scotland forbidding clergymen from praying publicly for Charles Stuart. LYP2
31 Penn and Venables set sail from Barbados for Hispaniola. A further 1,000 volunteer troops gathered from Montserrat, Nevis and St Kitts. HCP4
  Blake sails from Sicily for Porto Farina in Tunisia. HCP4


2 The government in Ireland orders the execution of Edward Hetherington as an example; he had not obeyed the order for transplantation and was alleged to have taken part as a Tory in the killing of Englishmen. Hetherington hanged the next day. Source: HCP4
3 Thomas Harrison transferred from Portland Castle to Carisbrooke on the Isle of Wight. HCP3
4 Robert Blake destroys the shore batteries at Porto Farina and sinks the Turkish fleet in the harbour. HCP4
7 The Dey of Tunis continues in his refusal to negotiate with Blake over the release of English slaves. Lacking military support, Blake withdraws to Cagliari. HCP4
10 Two judges, Francis Thorpe and Richard Newdigate, appointed to try the Royalist insurgents captured in Yorkshire, write to the solicitor-general raising legal objections to the ordinance of treason. Walter Strickland sent north to smooth over the difficulties. HCP3
11 Trial of Royalist insurgents at Salisbury; six found guilty of treason, of whom three are later executed. HCP3
12 Massacre of Vaudois Protestants by French troops in Piedmont. (22 April NS) HCP4
13 The Western Design fleet arrives off Santo Domingo on Hispaniola (Haiti). HCP4
14 General Venables lands the bulk of his troops twenty-five miles west of Santo Domingo at the mouth of the River Nizao. The march on Santo Domingo hampered by heat and drought. HCP4
  (Mid April) A committee of officers formed to advise on financing the army. The committee advises a reduction in army pay and the formation of a cavalry militia to be called out in times of emergency. HCP3
17 Venables' force withdraws from the outskirts of Santo Domingo after an ambush by the Spaniards. HCP4
  Walter Strickland reports to Secretary of State Thurloe that the objections of the Yorkshire judges call into question the legality of the Instrument of Government itself. HCP3
18 Colonel Penruddock and other insurgents brought to trial at Exeter. Twenty-six prisoners found guilty of treason, of whom seven are later hanged. Penruddock and Hugh Grove sentenced to beheading. HCP3
  Blake sails from Cagliari for Algiers. EM1
23 The three Commissioners of the Great Seal — John Lisle, Bulstrode Whitelocke, Sir Thomas Widdrington — and the Master of the Rolls William Lenthall ordered by the Council of State to put into operation an ordinance for the reform of the Court of Chancery. Owing to the objections of Chancery lawyers, only John Lisle is willing to comply. HCP3
24 General Venables leads a second march on Santo Domingo. HCP4
25 Venables' troops routed by the Spaniards. HCP4
  Further trials of Royalist insurgents at Chard in Somerset. HCP3
28 Blake's fleet arrives at Algiers. HCP4


2 The Dey of Algiers agrees to renew a treaty with England and to release English slaves upon payment of their value. Sailors of Blake's fleet subscribe for the release of forty Dutch slaves. Source: HCP4
3 The Yorkshire justices Thorpe and Newdigate summoned before the Council of State and dismissed from office over their questioning of the legality of the treason laws. HCP3
5 Penn and Venables abandon their attack on Hispaniola and agree to attempt to seize Jamaica. RHCA2
10 The government in Ireland orders the expulsion of all Catholics from Dublin. HCP4
  Penn and Venables' expedition arrives off Jamaica. HCP4
  Blake sails from Algiers for Formentara in the Balearic Islands. HCP4
11 In negotiations with Cromwell, Spain's special ambassador the Marquis of Lede announces that King Philip will make no concessions regarding freedom of worship for Protestants or English trade in the West Indies. HCP4
  After Lede's announcement, secret instructions are sent to General-at-Sea Blake ordering him to prepare to seize the homeward-bound Spanish plate fleet. HCP4
12 English forces occupy Santiago de la Vega (Spanish Town) on Jamaica. HCP4
13 Terms offered to the Spanish population of Jamaica. HCP4
14 Blake arrives at Formentara and receives despatches informing him that Cromwell is intent on war with Spain rather than with France. EM1
16 Colonel Penruddock beheaded at Exeter. ODNB
17 The Spanish surrender Jamaica. HCP4
18 Chief Justice of the Upper Bench Henry Rolle summoned to appear before the Council of State after supporting lawyers' objections to the Instrument of Government. HCP3
  Blake despatches two frigates to Cartagena to recover guns from ships of Prince Rupert's squadron wrecked there in 1650, claiming that they are the property of the English Commonwealth. HCP4
21 Rumours of an assassination plot against Cromwell prompt a wave of arrests of Royalists leaders in London and the provinces. The arrests continue throughout the summer. RCE
23 Lord-Deputy Fleetwood complains in a letter to John Thurloe of a lack of support for the Dublin administration from the government in London. HCP4
  The Spanish authorities at Cartagena comply with the claim made by Blake's captains for the guns from Rupert's ships. Fifty pieces of ordnance and several anchors recovered. HCP4
24 Cromwell writes to European leaders attempting to organise a Protestant league after news reaches England of a massacre of Vaudois Protestants by French troops in territory governed by the Duke of Savoy. HCP4
25 Negotiations for a treaty with France broken off until Louis XIV agrees to intercede with the Duke of Savoy to end the persecution of the Vaudois. HCP4
  Cromwell orders a national collection to raise funds to assist the Vaudois. HCP4
  One of Penn's ships, the Discovery, accidentally destroyed in a gunpowder explosion off Jamaica. RN2
27 Blake at Gibraltar. EM1
28 The Council of State agrees to adopt the scheme for a new cavalry militia and names officers to command it. Major-General Disbrowe appointed commander of the militia in the six western counties. HCP3
30 Blake's fleet stationed off Cadiz. HCP4


  (First week of June) Arrest of several prominent Royalists, including Lord Willoughby of Parham, on suspicion of plotting against the government. Source: HCP3
1 Cromwell's ambassador Samuel Morland arrives at the French court. HCP4
2 King Louis XIV of France agrees to intercede with the Duke of Savoy on behalf of the Vaudois. HCP4
6 Cromwell announces to the Spanish ambassadors Lede and Cardenas that he will not come to terms with Spain unless concessions regarding freedom of worship and trade in the West Indies are granted. HCP4
  Resignation of Bulstrode Whitelocke and Sir Thomas Widdrington as Commissioners of the Great Seal over the proposed reforms of the Court of Chancery without Parliament's authority. HCP3
7 Resignation of Chief Justice Rolle over concerns regarding the legality of the Instrument of Government. HCP3
11 A regiment commanded by Colonel John Humphries sent to reinforce the Western Design expedition, accompanied by Major Robert Sedgwick who is authorised to act as an additional commissioner. HCP4
12 Spanish special ambassador the Marquis of Lede leaves England. HCP4
13 Secret orders sent to General-at-Sea Robert Blake authorising him to seize outward-bound Spanish ships carrying supplies to the West Indies. HCP4
22 Cromwell writes to Lord-Deputy Fleetwood, hinting that he should return to England. HCP4
25 General-at-Sea William Penn leaves Jamaica and sails for England with eleven ships, leaving Vice-Admiral Goodsonn with twelve ships in the West Indies. RHCA2
  (End of June) Cromwell ratifies the formation of local militias to supplement the regular army. HCP3


4 General Robert Venables leaves Jamaica and sails for England in the Marston Moor, leaving Colonel Richard Fortescue as commander on the island. Source: RHCA2
6 Blake reports that a Spanish fleet is being fitted out in Cadiz harbour to guard the returning plate fleet. HCP4
  Owing to fears of a conspiracy to assassinate Cromwell, all known Royalists are banished from London and Westminster. HCP3
9 Henry Cromwell arrives in Dublin to take up his appointments as Major-General of the army in Ireland and member of the Irish Council. HCP4
11 Charles X of Sweden invades Poland. HCP4
12 In response to France's offer to mediate with the Duke of Savoy on behalf of the Vaudois Protestants, Cromwell recalls all letters of marque issued against French subjects. HCP4
13 One of Penn's ships, the Paragon, catches fire at sea and is burnt with the loss of 110 men. RN2
14 Lord-Deputy Fleetwood issues declarations tightening the qualifications for transplantation, thus indicating his determination to continue with the policy, despite Cromwell's moves towards moderation. HCP4
16? General-at-Sea William Penn, en route for England, discusses with his captains the possibility of attacking the Spanish plate fleet, but decides that it would be impracticable. CN
18 Arrival in England of Christer Bonde, ambassador of Charles X of Sweden. Bonde's instructions are to seek an alliance with England. HCP4
20 Fleetwood allows rents of Irish lands to be paid to army agents, with assurances that the land itself will be given to soldiers as soon as the Down Survey is complete. HCP4
24 News of Penn and Venables' failure to capture Hispaniola reaches England. HCP4
26 The Council of State proposes a reduction in the size of the regular army as well as a reduction in soldiers' pay. HCP3
31 Cromwell confirms the Council's proposal for reducing the Army. HCP3
  Vice-Admiral William Goodsonn's squadron sails from Jamaica to raid Spanish bases in South America. He sacks Santa Marta in Colombia but is thwarted in his attempts to attack Rio Hacha and Cartagena, RN2


9 Major-Generals named to command the local militias in ten regional associations (later extended to twelve). Source: HCP3
12 The Spanish fleet slips out of Cadiz and takes up a station off Cape St Vincent. HCP4
15-18 General-at-Sea Robert Blake follows the Spanish fleet, hoping to bring on an engagement, but the Spanish ignore the provocation. HCP4
22 First instructions to the Major-Generals issued. HCP3
24 Blake withdraws his fleet to Lisbon. HCP4
  Dutch ambassador Willem Nieuport urges Cromwell to join the United Provinces, Denmark and Brandenburg against the Swedish attempt to monopolise trade in the Baltic. HCP4
28 The Council of State orders that all newspapers are to be licensed. Commissioners to be appointed to enforce the law against unlicensed publications. HCP4
31 Realising that Cromwell is intent on war, King Philip IV instructs the Spanish ambassador Alonso de Cardenas to leave England. HCP4


  (September) Lord Broghill arrives in Edinburgh to take up his appointment as president of the new Council of Scotland. Source: LYP2
1 General-at-Sea William Penn arrives back in Portsmouth. HCP4
6 After rapidly losing support in Dublin, Charles Fleetwood leaves Ireland and returns to London; Henry Cromwell left as chief government official in Ireland. HCP4
10 General Robert Venables arrives back in Portsmouth. HCP4
13 Cromwell writes to General-at-Sea Blake authorising him to return to England to re-supply the fleet if he sees fit, but hints that an attack on the Spanish fleet would be acceptable. Blake decides that the condition of his ships is too poor to remain at sea. HCP4
17 News reaches London that King Philip of Spain has declared a trade embargo on English goods. English merchants protest at Cromwell's anti-Spanish policy. HCP4
19 Negotiations resumed with the French ambassador M. de Bordeaux-Neufville regarding a treaty between England and France. HCP4
20 Penn and Venables appear before the Council of State to answer charges of deserting their posts. Both officers imprisoned in the Tower of London. HCP4
21 The Council of State draws up the commissions for the Major-Generals. County commissioners appointed to assist them. HCP3
  Ten per cent Decimation Tax to be imposed upon property-owning Royalists. Those who had participated in plots or insurrections against the Protectorate to be banished or imprisoned. CMG
22 Blake's fleet sails for England. CWS
  Jewish leader Menassah ben Israel arrives in London. ODNB
24 A proclamation issued allowing Scottish towns to elect their own magistrates on condition that they swear loyalty to the Protector. LYP2
26 Daniel Gookin sent to New England to persuade civilian colonists to transfer to Jamaica. Cromwell urges governors of West Indian colonies to persuade their surplus populations to transfer. HCP4
  Excise duties imposed upon Scotland for the first time. LYP2


  (October) John Lilburne brought from Jersey to Dover Castle after giving assurances that he would live peaceably. Source: HCP4
1 Colonel Humphries and Major Sedgwick arrive at Jamaica. As the only active commissioner, Sedgwick appoints Vice-Admiral Goodsonn and Major-General Fortescue (left by Penn and Venables as commanders of naval and military forces) to be co-commissioners on the island. HCP4
3 Release of Royalists arrested earlier in the year on condition that they give surety not to plot against the Protectorate and promise to give information against those who did. HCP3
  Independent newspapers closed down. Only two newspapers allowed to appear: Mercurius Politicus and The Public Intelligencer, both edited by Marchamont Nedham to promote the interests of the government. HCP4
6 Blake's fleet anchors in the Downs. HCP4
9 Additional instructions issued to the Major-Generals, empowering them to impose moral reform in their localities. HCP3
  The imprisoned Fifth Monarchist preachers Christopher Feake and John Rogers removed to the Isle of WIght. HCP4
11 Commissions formally issued to the Major-Generals. HCP3
12 Lord Cranston authorised to raise 1,000 troops in Scotland for the Swedish service. The Swedish ambassador had hoped for up to 8,000. HCP4
15 Despite the protests of merchants and the opposition of a faction headed by John Lambert, the Council of State supports Cromwell in pursuit of war with Spain. HCP4
17 Cromwell assures the Dutch ambassador that he will accept no offers from Sweden detrimental to the Dutch interest. HCP4
20 Johann Schlezer sent to England as ambassador to the Elector of Brandenburg. HCP4
24 A commercial treaty signed between England and France. In a secret clause, the French agree to banish Charles Stuart and his supporters from France. In return, Cromwell agrees to expel agents of the Prince de Condé (Louis Bourbon), leader of the Fronde rebellion. HCP4
25 Renewal of the proclamation expelling Royalists from London and Westminster. HCP3
  William Penn released from the Tower after apologising for his disobedience and resigning his commission. HCP4
26 Cromwell issues a manifesto justifying his aggression against Spain and claiming that Spain had started the hostilities in the West Indies by ill-treating English colonists. HCP4
27 Cardenas the Spanish ambassador leaves England. HCP4
31 Proclamation of the establishment of the Rule of the Major-Generals in England and Wales. HCP3
  Cromwell declares that Royalists who show evidence of a change of heart and who promise to forsake their former allegiance will be exempted from the decimation tax. CMG
  Robert Venables released from the Tower but relieved of all military commands. HCP4
  Menassah ben Israel submits a petition for the re-admission of the Jews to England. ODNB


1 Richard Cromwell appointed to his first public office in the enlargement of the recently-appointed Committee for Trade and Navigation. Source: HCP4
5 Major Sedgwick reports to Cromwell on the poor condition of the colony on Jamaica where many of the soldiers are sick and food is in short supply. HCP4
  Menassah ben Israel publishes his Humble Addresses in which he defends the Jews from calumnies raised against them and claims that according to prophecy, their re-admission would signal the coming of the Messiah. HCP4
7 Vice-Admiral Goodsonn reports from the Caribbean that a raid on the Spanish colony of Santa Marta has yielded plunder worth only £470. HCP4
13 The Council of State appoints a committee to discuss the readmission of the Jews into England, to be discussed further at a conference at Whitehall. HCP4
15 Cromwell offers to mediate between Sweden and the United Provinces in the interests of fraternity amongst the Protestant nations. HCP4
16 Arrest of Richard Talbot and James Halsall on suspicion of plotting to assassinate Cromwell. HCP4
21 Cromwell appoints a day of humiliation and appeals for national unity. HCP3
24 Royalists forbidden from keeping weapons in their houses and from employing ejected clergymen as their chaplains or tutors for their children. HCP3
25 Henry Manning, Thurloe's principal spy at the court of Charles II at Cologne, exposed and arrested. He is later shot. HCP4
30 Transportation to Barbados of prisoners held in Exeter gaol since Penruddock's Uprising in March. HCP3


3 Five hundred Fifth Monarchists meet at Allhallows church in London where Vavasor Powell's petition against the Protectorate, A Word for God, is read out. Source: FMM
4-18 Twice-weekly conferences of theologians, politicians and merchants meet at Whitehall to discuss with Cromwell the readmission of the Jews into England. No firm conclusion reached. HCP4
13 Cromwell interviews Edmund Ludlow at Whitehall, who continues in his refusal to pledge loyalty to the Protectorate. HCP4
14 Cromwell presses the Swedish ambassador to compromise over Sweden's attempts to dominate trade in the Baltic. HCP4


AOI: Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum C.H. Firth and R.S. Raitt (eds), 1911

CMG: Cromwell's Major-Generals, Christopher Durston (Manchester 2001)

CN: Cromwell's Navy, Bernard Capp (Oxford 1989)

CWS: Cromwell's Wars at Sea, John Barratt (Barnsley 2006)

EM1: England in the Mediterranean 1603-1713 vol.i Sir Julian Stafford Corbett (London 1904)

FMM: The Fifth Monarchy Men, Bernard Capp (London 1972)

HCP3: History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate vol. iii, S.R. Gardiner (London 1903)

HCP4: History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate vol. iv, S.R. Gardiner (London 1903)

LYP2: Last Years of the Protectorate vol. ii, C.H. Firth (London 1909)

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

RB: Robert Blake, in The Naval Review vol.xiii, no.3 Lt. T.M. Napier (The Naval Society 1925)

RCE: Royalist Conspiracy in England 1649-60, David Underdown (New Haven 1960)

RHCA2: The Regimental History of Cromwell's Army vol ii, C.H. Firth & G. Davies (Oxford 1940)

RN2: The Royal Navy: a history from the earliest times to the present, vol.ii Sir William Laird Clowes (London 1898)

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