The Second Civil War — the siege of Colchester — Engagers defeated at the battle of Preston — the Treaty of Newport — Pride's Purge


1 The House of Commons orders Colonel Rainsborough to take command of the naval squadron guarding the Solent and the Isle of Wight, despite the House of Lords' objection to his appointment. Source: HGCW4
3 The House of Commons passes the Vote of No Addresses by 141 votes to 91. No more approaches to be made to the King because of his secret negotiations with the Scots; the settlement of the nation to be decided by Parliament alone. The House of Lords is hostile to the proposal and refuses to debate it. HGCW4
  The House of Commons dissolves the Committee for Both Kingdoms; English members continue to meet as the Derby House Committee. HGCW4, HCJ
11 The Army Council at Windsor declares in favour of the Vote of No Addresses. HGCW4
13 Tax riot in London; the House of Commons asks General Fairfax to send troops to occupy Whitehall and the Mews for the protection of Parliament and indirectly to coerce the House of Lords. HGCW4
15 Peers hostile to the Vote of No Addresses absent themselves from the House of Lords. HGCW4
17 The House of Lords passes the Vote of No Addresses. HLJ
  The Earl of Lauderdale and the Scottish commissioners in London protest at the passing of the Vote of No Addresses. ODNB
  John Lilburne and John Wildman address a meeting of Levellers at Smithfield, East London, with a fierce attack on the House of Lords. HGCW4
18 Colonel Barkstead's regiment of foot occupies Whitehall; Colonel Rich's cavalry regiment occupies the Mews. HGCW4
20 Lilburne and Wildman arrested on charges of sedition. They are held without trial until August. HGCW4
21 Sir John Chiesley brings details of the Engagement to the Committee of Estates at Edinburgh. RCRS
24 The Scottish commissioners leave London for Scotland. RCRS
26 In an attempt to conciliate English Presbyterians, the House of Commons resolves to take into consideration the Confession of Faith prepared by the Assembly of Divines and to direct that all MPs who had not taken the Covenant should now do so. HGCW4, HCJ
27 The impeached MPs who have refused to return and stand trial are forbidden from sitting in the present Parliament. HGCW4


5 Walter Strickland sent as Parliament's ambassador to the Netherlands with instructions to urge the States General to refuse help to the Queen and Prince of Wales. Source: HGCW4
11 Declaration of the Vote of No Addresses passed by Parliament. HGCW4
  Parliamentary ordinance renews the suppression of stage plays. Actors disobeying the ordinance are to be flogged, spectators to be fined. AOI
  (Mid February) Confederate envoys leave Ireland for Rome and Paris. TCK
15 Supported by the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Lauderdale and the former Scottish commissioners in England urge the Committee of Estates to declare war on the English Parliament. RCRS
16 The Marquis of Argyll supports the Scottish clergy in their demand to be consulted before war is declared and over the settlement of religion. HGCW4
22 Colonel Poyer, governor of Pembroke, refuses to hand Pembroke Castle over to his successor Adjutant-General Fleming as ordered by Parliament until until his troops' arrears are paid. HGCW4
  (End of February) Colonel Barry lands at Cork with instructions from the Marquis of Ormond to open negotiations for an alliance between Royalists in Ireland and Confederates who oppose Archbishop Rinuccini. HGCW4


  (March) Ormond's agent Colonel Barry authorised by Lord Inchiquin to negotiate for a truce between himself and the Confederates. Inchiquin hints that he might declare for the King. Source: HGCW4
2 The Scottish Parliament meets in Edinburgh. A majority of nobles favour the Duke of Hamilton and war against England on behalf of King Charles. The Kirk opposes the war because of the King's refusal to enforce the Covenant. RCRS, HGCW4
3 Parliament passes an ordinance declaring Colonel Poyer and his troops at Pembroke to be traitors unless they submit and surrender the castle. HGCW4, HLJ
10 The Scottish Parliament appoints the Committee for Dangers, Remedies and Duties to organise and co-ordinate the war against England. RCRS
  (Mid-March) A number of duels fought between leading opponents and supporters of the Engagement in Scotland: David Leslie against Lord SInclair, Lord Eglinton against Lord Glencairn, the Marquis of Argyll against Lord Crawford-Lindsay. No serious bloodshed occurs. RCRS
  (Mid-March) Lord Saye-and-Sele attends the King at Carisbrooke Castle and tries to persuade him to come to terms with Parliament. PP
17 Despite Argyll's objections, the Scottish Parliament makes plans for seizing Berwick and Carlisle. English Royalists assemble in Edinburgh. RCRS
20 King Charles fails in an attempt to escape from Carisbrooke Castle. HGCW4
23 Colonel Poyer declares for the King at Pembroke in south Wales. HGCW4
  Sir William Fleming arrives in Edinburgh and declares that the Prince of Wales is ready to come to Scotland on assurance that the Scots will fight for the Stuarts. HGCW4
27 (King Charles' Accession Day) Pro-Royalist demonstrations in London; the City demands the King's restoration. The Mayor of Norwich authorises bonfires and feasting in the King's honour. HGCW4, PP


3 Lord Inchiquin declares for the King and for an alliance with the Irish Confederates and the Scots. Officers who will not support his change of allegiance are ordered to leave Ireland. Source: HGCW4
4 Major-General Monro and the Scottish army in Ulster declare their support for the Engagement. TCW
9 Pro-Royalist riots by London apprentices and others. They are confronted by cavalry when they attempt to invade Whitehall; two of the crowd killed. HGCW4
  Colonel Poyer marches to Carmarthen to rendezvous with Colonel Powell. Their combined force estimated at between 3,000 and 4,000 men. ODNB
10 London rioters secure the City gates at Ludgate and Newgate; the Lord Mayor takes refuge in the Tower. Colonel Barkstead's regiment enters the City at Moorgate and succeeds in dispersing the rioters and arresting the ringleaders. HGCW4
11 The Scottish Parliament provocatively demands the establishment of Presbyterianism in England and the repression of heresy and the Book of Common Prayer; it also votes to urge the English Parliament to open negotiations with the King in London and to disband the New Model Army. HGCW4
12 The Westminster Assembly orders the completed scriptural proofs for the Shorter and Larger Catechisms to be transcribed and submitted to Parliament. CWA
15 The House of Commons orders the strengthening of the garrison in the Tower of London. HCJ
17 Colonel Horton arrives at Neath to enforce the disbandment of Parliamentarian troops in South Wales. HGCW4
18 In expectation of a refusal of its demands, the Scottish Parliament resolves to raise an army against the English Parliament. HGCW4, RCRS
20 The Scottish Parliament approves a declaration that Scotland will declare war on England unless its demands are met. RCRS
21 James, Duke of York, escapes from London to the Continent. HGCW4
24 Riots at Norwich in support of the mayor, who refused to answer charges before Parliament after allowing celebrations of King Charles' Accession Day. Rioters seize the headquarters of the Norfolk committee and the county magazine, which is accidentally blown up, killing at least 100 people. PP
  Army Agitators at St Albans draft a petition for the New Model army to adopt a new variant of the Agreement of the People. HHAP
25 On hearing news of the plans for a Scottish army, the House of Commons resolves to strengthen the defences of Newcastle. HGCW4
28 The House of Commons passes a declaration by 165 votes to 99 stating that it would not alter the fundamental government of the nation "by King, Lords and Commons". PP
  The Commission of the Kirk writes to all presbyteries in Scotland accusing the Scottish Parliament of interference in religious matters and rejecting the grounds for war against England. RCRS
  Sir Marmaduke Langdale occupies Berwick for the King, intending to hold it until the arrival of the Scottish army. HGCW4
29 Sir Philip Musgrave takes Carlisle for the King, opening a route into England for the Scots. HGCW4
  Army Council of War begins with a two-day prayer meeting at Windsor Castle at which officers search their consciences and pray for Divine guidance to determine the causes of the present troubles. HGCW4


1 News reaches the Army Council of War at Windsor that Adjutant-General Fleming has been killed by Royalist insurgents in South Wales. Fairfax sends Cromwell with two regiments of horse and three of foot to join Colonel Horton in putting down the rebellion; Sir Hardress Waller sent to secure Cornwall. Army officers resolve that King Charles will be brought to account for stirring up a new war. Source: HGCW4
  The Duke of Hamilton and other Engager lords formally invite Charles, Prince of Wales to come to Scotland. HGCW4
4 Demonstration at Westminster by 2,000 petitioners from Essex, calling for the return of the King and the disbandment of the Army. HGCW4
  The Duke of Hamilton appointed commander of the Scottish army to invade England; levy of the Engager army begins. TCW, RCRS
5 The General Assembly of the Kirk declares against the Engagement. RCRS
6 In an attempt to avoid war with Scotland, the Westminster Parliament declares its commitment to the Solemn League and Covenant and proposes to re-open negotiations with the King jointly with the Scots. RCRS
8 Battle of St. Fagan's, Glamorganshire. Royalist insurgents under Major-General Laugharne routed by Colonel Horton. Remnants of the Royalist army retreat into Pembroke Castle. HGCW4
  Cromwell reviews his troops at Gloucester. HGCW4
11 Cromwell occupies Chepstow and leaves Colonel Ewer to reduce the castle, which is defended by Sir Nicholas Kemoys. TCG
  A grand jury at Canterbury, Kent, dismisses charges against those arrested for taking part in the disturbances at Christmas. A petition is drawn up similar to those presented to Parliament from Essex and Surrey. HGCW4
12 Pro-Royalist riots at Bury St. Edmunds. The rioters seize the county magazine in the King's name but are dispersed by troops commanded by Colonel Whalley. HGCW4
15 Londoners demonstrate their support for the King and the disbandment of the Army by ignoring the thanksgiving services for the victory at St. Fagans. HGCW4
  Cromwell advances to Cardiff. TCG
16 Riot at Westminster by pro-Royalist petitioners from Surrey trying to force their way into the House of Commons; guards pelted with missiles respond with musket fire, killing ten and wounding 100 of the petitioners. HGCW4
18 Parliament restores command of the London militia and the Tower to the City; the Presbyterian Colonel West appointed Constable of the Tower. HGCW4
19 An imposter claiming to be the Prince of Wales favourably received by seamen in the Downs. CN
  Cromwell at Swansea. TCG
20 The Inchiquin Truce: a cessation of hostilities signed between Lord Inchiquin and the Confederate Supreme Council at Kilkenny. TCW
21 Rebellion against Parliament breaks out in Kent when the county committee at Canterbury attempts to suppress the Kent petition. Insurgents seize Rochester, Sittingbourne, Faversham and Sandwich in the King's name. HGCW4
22 Local gentry at Rochester agree to lead an armed gathering to Blackheath in support of the Kent petition. HGCW4
  A plot to seize Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire for the King is thwarted. HOP
23 Kent insurgents occupy Sandwich Castle. Letters distributed to every ship in the Downs calling on the seamen to support the Kent petition. CN
23 Cromwell at Tenby, where Colonel Horton is besieging the Royalists in Tenby Castle. TCG
24 Cromwell arrives at Pembroke Castle, defended by Major-General Laugharne and Colonel Poyer. TCG
  Royalist sympathisers seize control of Chatham dockyard in Kent. CN
  Parliament votes by 169 to 86 to resume negotiations with the King. PP
25 Colonel Ewer takes Chepstow castle by storm. Sir Nicholas Kemoys killed. TCG
26 Kent insurgents seize Dartford; Royalist sympathisers from Southwark take Deptford. HGCW4
  Colonel Rich's regiment of horse and some companies of Barkstead's foot secure Southwark, leaving the City Trained Bands to guard the Houses of Parliament. HGCW4
27 Naval revolt in the Downs — mutineers in six warships expel Colonel Rainsborough and declare for the King. The mutineers secure Sandown, Deal and Walmer castles. Dover besieged. HGCW4, CN
  General Fairfax reviews his troops on Hounslow Heath. HGCW4
  With the threat of Fairfax's advance, the Royalist insurgents abandon Deptford and fall back to Dartford. HGCW4
  Archbishop Rinuccini excommunicates all supporters of the Inchiquin Truce. Owen Roe O'Neill declares for Rinuccini, but Irish leaders Clanricarde, Preston and Taafe support the Supreme Council. The divisions preclude any possibility of help for the Royalists from Ireland. TCW
28 Plan for the King's escape from Carisbrooke discovered by Colonel Hammond. HGCW4
  Naval mutineers in the Downs send a declaration to the admiralty commissioners justifying their actions and calling for a personal treaty with the King, disbandment of the Army and a return to traditional forms of government. CN
29 Rainsborough dismissed from command of the Navy; the Earl of Warwick re-appointed Parliament's Lord High Admiral. HGCW4, CN
  The Earl of Norwich proclaimed leader of the Kent Royalists at a rendezvous at Burham Heath between Rochester and Maidstone. ODNB
30 Fairfax advances to Blackheath. The insurgents at Dartford disperse. HGCW4
  The Earl of Warwick sails for the Downs but is unable to persuade the mutineers to submit. CN
31 Tenby Castle surrenders to Colonel Horton. HGCW4
  Fairfax at Gravesend. With Rochester too heavily defended to attack, he marches south towards Maidstone. ATKA
  The Confederate Supreme Council appeals to the Vatican against Rinuccini's sentence of excommunication. TCW


1 Battle of Maidstone: Fairfax defeats the Kent Royalists. The Earl of Norwich escapes to Rochester with a small force of followers. Source: HGCW4
  Engager levies begin to muster on the Border. RCRS
2 On promises of good treatment, the Kent insurgents disperse. The Earl of Norwich leaves Rochester and makes for London. HGCW4
3 The Earl of Norwich at Blackheath pursued by a party of horse and dragoons commanded by Colonel Whalley. SOC
  Parliament abandons impeachment proceedings against the Eleven Members. HGCW4
4 Royalist uprising in Essex. The county committee at Chelmsford taken prisoner by an angry crowd. Sir Charles Lucas takes command. HGCW4
  The Earl of Norwich crosses the Thames at Greenwich with 500 loyal followers. HGCW4
  The Earl of Warwick arrives at Portsmouth and confirms the loyalty of the ships there. CN
  Cromwell's attempt to storm Pembroke Castle repulsed. TCG
6 Dover Castle surrenders to Colonel Rich. HGCW4
  Colonel John Morrice seizes Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire and declares for the King. HOP
7 The Scottish Parliament rejects the concessions offered by Westminster on 6 May and continues with preparations for war. RCRS
8 Insurgents at Canterbury surrender to Commissary-General Ireton. HGCW4
9 Sir Charles Lucas and the Essex Royalists joined at Chelmsford by Sir George Lisle, Lord Capel, Lord Loughborough and the Earl of Norwich. HGCW4
  Sir Thomas Honeywood seizes the county magazine at Braintree in Essex for Parliament. HGCW4
10 The mutineers in the Downs resolve to put their nine warships at the disposal of the Prince of Wales, and set sail for Helvoetsluys in the Netherlands. CN
  Sir Charles Lucas and the Essex Royalists advance to Braintree, shadowed by Colonel Whalley. HGCW4
11 General Fairfax crosses the Thames at Tilbury. HGCW4
  Prompted by Archbishop Rinuccini, Owen Roe O'Neill declares war on the Confederate Supreme Council and marches to attack Kilkenny. TCW
  The Scottish Parliament grants full power to the Committee of Estates and adjourns itself, leaving the Duke of Hamilton's party in control of Scottish affairs. RCRS
12 The Essex Royalists enter Colchester in the hope of gaining further recruits. HGCW4
  Fairfax joins Whalley and Honeywood at Coggeshall then pushes on towards Colchester. HGCW4
  Skirmish on Mauchline Moor, near Ayr. Anti-Engager insurgents dispersed by Lieutenant-General Middleton and the Earl of Callendar. RCRS, ATKA
13 Fairfax's attempt to storm Colchester repulsed by Sir Charles Lucas. HGCW4
14 Fairfax begins preparations for a long siege at Colchester. HGCW4
19 Three Royalist ships attempting to sail up the River Colne to bring supplies into Colchester driven back by the Parliamentarian garrison on Mersea Island. Three Parliamentarian ships arrive from Harwich to blockade the mouth of the Colne. HGCW4
24 The Suffolk Trained Bands secure the roads leading north out of Colchester. SOC
  Cromwell's second attempt to storm Pembroke Castle repulsed. TCG
27 The Common Council of London petitions Parliament for a treaty with the King. PP
  A joint committee of the Lords and Commons appointed to consider terms for a treaty with the King. HCJ
29 The Prince of Wales, accompanied by senior Royalists, leaves St Germain for the Netherlands to take command of the nine warships that have defected. A summons sent to all exiled Privy Councillors to join the Prince. HGCW4
  The corporation of Trinity House petitions Parliament to negotiate a treaty with the King rather than fit out a fleet to sail against the Prince of Wales. The petition is supported by many ship owners and merchants. CN


  (July) The Levellers begin publication of their newspaper The Moderate, which runs until October 1649. Source: LCB
1 Heavy siege guns from Gloucester landed at Milford Haven for the siege of Pembroke Castle. TCG
  Colonel Robert Lilburne captures 400 Royalists under Sir Richard Tempest in a surprise attack at Cartington in Northumberland. ATKA
2 Fairfax completes the circumvallation of Colchester. HGCW4
  The Prince of Wales sends a commission to Lord Inchiquin appointing him Lord-President of Munster. ODNB
4 The Engager army musters at Annan in Dumfriesshire. RCRS
  Bombardment of Pembroke Castle begins. HGCW4
5 The Earl of Holland, the Duke of Buckingham and Lord Francis Villiers appear in arms at the head of a party of 500 Royalist gentlemen at Kingston in Surrey. HGCW4
  The House of Lords endorses a London petition urging that the King should be brought to London to negotiate a treaty with Parliament. PP
  Colonel Rossiter defeats a raiding party from Pontefract Castle at Willoughby Field in Nottinghamshire. HOP, FWF
6 The Earl of Holland attempts to secure Reigate Castle but is resisted by Lord Monson. Troops commanded by Sir Michael Livesey pursue Holland back to Kingston. Lord Francis Villiers killed in the pursuit. HGCW4
8 The Duke of Hamilton's Engager army crosses the border into England. Hamilton marches to join forces with Langdale's Royalists at Carlisle. RCRS
  Deserted by most of his troops and with no more recruits coming forward, the Earl of Holland escapes from Kingston with about 200 followers. HGCW4
9 The Prince of Wales sails from Calais for the Netherlands. HGCW4
10 Colonel Scrope captures the Earl of Holland at St. Neots in Cambridgeshire. The Duke of Buckingham escapes to the Continent. HGCW4
11 Starved into submission, Major-General Laugharne and Colonel Poyer surrender Pembroke Castle to Cromwell. HGCW4
12 The anti-Engager George Gillespie elected moderator of the General Assembly of the Kirk at Edinburgh. The Assembly declares the Duke of Hamilton a traitor to the Covenant. RCRS
  Surrender of Walmer Castle to Colonel Rich. TCG
  The Prince of Wales and the Duke of York received at The Hague by the Prince of Orange. HGCW4
14 Fairfax's troops seize the Hythe, Colchester's harbour on the River Colne. HGCW4
  Skirmish at Penrith in Cumberland between Lambert's rearguard and Engager cavalry. Lambert withdraws to Appleby. ATKA
  (Mid-July) William Batten defects to the Royalists in the Constant Warwick. ODNB
15 The Abbey Gatehouse, commanding the southern wall of Colchester, taken by Fairfax's troops. HGCW4
16 Cromwell leaves Pembroke and marches for the north. TCG
17 The Prince of Wales issues a declaration supporting the Engagement. He sails from the Netherlands with the Royalist fleet which now comprises ten warships. CN
  The Scots attack Lambert's headquarters at Appleby. Lambert withdraws across the Pennines to Barnard Castle in Durham, awaiting the arrival of Cromwell. TCG
20 The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland approves the Larger Catechism prepared by the Westminster Assembly. CWA
  The House of Commons votes that all who those who had conspired to invite the Scots to invade England should be regarded as rebels and traitors. PP
22 The Prince of Wales' fleet arrives off Yarmouth in Norfolk, but local magistrates supported by a small body of troops prevent him from landing. CN
23 The Prince's fleet sails for the Downs and begins seizing merchant shipping. CN
26 Lambert at Barnard Castle. ATKA
28 The House of Commons votes by 71 to 64 to abandon its insistence that the King should agree to grant Presbyterian church government for three years and other concessions as a precondition for treaty negotiations. In return, the House of Lords concedes that the negotiations should be held on the Isle of Wight rather than in London, where Charles will be less able to mobilise public opinion. PP
  The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland approves the Shorter Catechism. CWA
31 Appleby Castle in Westmorland surrenders to the Scots. The Duke of Hamilton continues his southward advance. HGCW4


1 Cromwell at Leicester. Source: HGCW4
2 The Duke of Hamilton at Kendal in Westmorland. HGCW4
  The House of Lords follows the House of Commons in voting for the release from prison of the Leveller leaders Lilburne and Wildman. HGCW4
5 Cromwell at Nottingham where he secures supplies for his soldiers. HGCW4
7 Lambert withdraws from Ripon to Knaresborough. AECW
8 Cromwell at Doncaster in Yorkshire, where he reinforces the siege of Pontefract while awaiting a train of artillery to come up from Hull. HGCW4
9 The Duke of Hamilton advances to Hornby in Lancashire. HGCW4
  Henry Lilburne (brother of John and Robert) defects to the Royalists at Tynemouth Castle. HGCW4
10 William Batten joins the Prince of Wales' fleet in the Downs in the Constant Warwick. Batten knighted by the Prince and appointed rear-admiral of the Royalist fleet. CN
  The Earl of Lauderdale arrives in the Downs to negotiate a meeting between the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Hamilton. HGCW4
  Sir Arthur Hesilrige sends a force to recover Tynemouth Castle; Henry Lilburne killed in the assault. HGCW4
11 Cromwell advances from Doncaster. HGCW4
13 Cromwell and Lambert join forces at Wetherby near York. They advance across the Pennines in pursuit of the Duke of Hamilton. HGCW4
  The Confederate Supreme Council declares that anyone who aids Owen Roe O'Neill's forces is to be considered a traitor. CIR
14 Unaware of Cromwell's approach, the Scottish army marches through Lancashire. At Preston, Hamilton sends his cavalry on towards Wigan. HGCW4
  A landing force from the Prince of Wales' fleet attempts to lift the siege of Deal but is driven back by Colonel Rich. HGCW4
  Denzil Holles and others of the Presbyterian Eleven Members, whose impeachments are discharged, re-take their seats at Westminster. HGCW4
16 The Prince of Wales agrees to accept Presbyterianism in order to secure an alliance with the Scots and to join with the Duke of Hamilton's army. HGCW4
  Starving civilians at Colchester beg the Earl of Norwich to surrender. HGCW4
  Cromwell's advance guard clashes with a Royalist outpost at Clitheroe in Lancashire. ATKA
17 Battle of Preston: Cromwell defeats Sir Marmaduke Langdale and occupies Preston while the Engager army withdraws southwards to Wigan. ATKA
18 The Engager army plunders Wigan and continues southwards towards Warrington pursued by Cromwell. LSBB
19 Battle of Winwick Pass: final defeat of Hamilton's Engager army. LSBB
20 Cromwell marches north towards Scotland. HGCW4
  The Earl of Norwich rejects the terms for surrender offered by General Fairfax. HGCW4
21 Starving women and children driven back into Colchester by Fairfax's soldiers. HGCW4
24 Parliament repeals the Vote of No Addresses and prepares to open fresh negotiations with the King. HGCW4
  Sir Marmaduke Langdale captured near Nottingham and imprisoned in Nottingham Castle. ODNB
25 The Duke of Hamilton surrenders to Major-General Lambert and Lord Grey at Uttoxeter in Staffordshire. HGCW4, RCRS
  Surrender of Deal Castle in Kent to Colonel Rich. HGCW4
27 Colchester surrenders to Fairfax. HGCW4
28 Colchester occupied by Fairfax. HGCW4
  The Committee of Estates in Edinburgh receives news of the the Whiggamore Raid in western Scotland. Major-General Monro ordered to gather his forces at Berwick while the Earl of Lanark musters the Scottish home army at Jedburgh. The Committee appoints Engager representatives to negotiate with the Whiggamores. RCRS
29 Royalist commanders Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle executed by firing squad at Colchester. SOC
  Parliament passes an ordinance establishing a Presbyterian system of Church government to forestall the King's demands in the forthcoming negotiations. HGCW4, AOI
  The Earl of Warwick's fleet sights the Royalist fleet. CN
30 The Royalist and Parliamentarian fleets manoeuvre in the Thames estuary but are driven apart by bad weather. CN
31 The Prince of Wales sails for the Netherlands. HGCW4


  (Early September) Sir Edward Hyde and Lord Cottington arrive at The Hague to join the Prince of Wales. PRA
2 The Earl of Warwick's fleet, strengthened by Parliament's Portsmouth squadron, anchors in the Downs. Source: HGCW4
3 The Royalist fleet anchors in neutral waters at Helvoetsluys in the Netherlands. The Prince of Wales and most of his retinue leave for the Hague. HGCW4
  The Committee of Estates flees from Edinburgh as the Whiggamores continue their advance. RCRS
4 Ninth and final Confederate Assembly meets at Kilkenny (until 17 January 1649). TCW
  Scottish prisoners in Lancashire who had been forced to serve the Engagers released; those who had volunteered transported to Virginia or Barbados. HGCW4
5 The Whiggamores occupy Edinburgh. The Earl of Leven secures the Castle. HGCW4, ATKA
  Sandown Castle in Kent surrenders to Colonel Rich. HGCW4
8 Cromwell at Durham, marching north. HGCW4
  The Whiggamores again reject the Engagers' terms for a treaty. RCRS
  Major-General Monro retreats into Scotland to join forces with the Earl of Lanark and the Engagers. HGCW4
10 Engager forces march around Edinburgh to seize Linlithgow. RCRS
11 Petition by London Levellers calling for the adoption of the Agreement of the People presented to Parliament. HGCW4
12 The Engagers march from Linlithgow and scatter the Marquis of Argyll's forces with heavy losses then occupy Stirling. RCRS
13 London Levellers repeat their demands and present another petition after the House of Commons ignores the first one. PP
15 Cromwell at Berwick where he requests that the Scots hand Berwick and Carlisle back to the English Parliament or be prepared to suffer the consequences. The Whiggamores send Sir Andrew Ker and Major Strachan to assure Cromwell that no treaty will be made with the Engagers unless they agree to disband their army and relinquish power. HGCW4, RCRS
  Parliament's commissioners arrive on the Isle of Wight and prepare to negotiate a treaty with the King. PP
16 Colonel Monck secures Belfast, Carrickfergus and Coleraine against Scottish supporters of the Engagement in Ulster. The Scottish commander Robert Monro seized in his bed at Carrickfergus and sent as a prisoner to England. HGCW4
  Petition calling for the abandonment of treaty negotiations pending an investigation of the King's conduct adopted by the Leicestershire county committee. Similar petitions against the treaty prepared in other counties. PP
18 Negotiations between the King and Parliament open at Newport on the Isle of Wight (the Treaty of Newport). HGCW4
19 The Earl of Warwick's fleet arrives in the Netherlands to blockade the Royalist fleet in Helvoetsluys harbour. Warwick tries to persuade the crews to desert and return to Parliament. HGCW4
21 Army headquarters moved to St. Albans in Hertfordshire. HGCW4
  Northern regiments appeal to Fairfax in support of the Levellers' petition. HGCW4
  Cromwell crosses the River Tweed and advances into Scotland. HGCW4
22 Conference at Mordington between Cromwell and the Marquis of Argyll. Whiggamore leaders claim to be the true Committee of Estates and declare that no Engagers may be part of the government of Scotland. RCRS
25 The Edinburgh Committee of Estates declares that unless the Engagers accept the terms offered and disband their army, force will be used against them. RCRS
  Parliament's commissioners at Newport urge the King to abolish episcopacy and to establish a Presbyterian system of church government. HGCW4
27 The Treaty of Stirling ends the dominance of the Engagers in Scotland. RCRS
  Henry Ireton writes to Fairfax urging that Parliament be purged of Presbyterians and Royalist sympathisers. HGCW4
28 The King proposes establishing Presbyterianism for three years, agrees to concede control of the militia for ten years and promises other concessions on condition that he should be allowed to come to Westminster "in absolute freedom and safety". HGCW4
30 Petitions from Oxfordshire and Leicestershire demanding that the King be called to account for causing the recent war presented in Parliament. HGCW4
  The Confederate General Assembly denounces Owen Roe O'Neill as a traitor and a rebel against the King. CIR
  Engager garrisons at Berwick and Carlisle surrender to the Parliamentarians. HGCW4


2 The House of Commons unanimously rejects the King's compromise proposal regarding a Presbyterian church settlement. Source: HGCW4
3 The Marquis of Ormond lands at Cork as the King's lord-lieutenant in Ireland with instructions to encourage the alliance between Lord Inchiquin and the Confederates in the interests of forming a united Royalist party in Ireland. CIR
4 Oliver Cromwell welcomed into Edinburgh by the Marquis of Argyll and Covenanters of the Kirk Party. HGCW4
  The Committee of Estates renews its declaration of 22 September excluding all Engagers from office in Scotland. RCRS
5 Cromwell holds talks with the Marquis of Argyll and Johnston of Wariston at which the fate of the King may have been discussed. RCRS
6 At Newport, The King refuses to abandon episcopacy. HGCW4
7 Cromwell leaves Edinburgh. Major-General Lambert with two regiments of horse and two companies of dragoons remains behind at the request of the Committee of Estates to protect Argyll and the Kirk Party. RCRS
8 The Marquis of Antrim leads a rebellion against the Marquis of Ormond, which is easily defeated. TCW
9 The King proposes a limited form of episcopacy and concedes control of the militia for twenty years to Parliament, but secretly makes plans to escape from the Isle of Wight. HGCW4, PP
10 Petitions from Newcastle, Yorkshire and Somerset presented at Westminster demanding that the King be brought to account. PP
11 The Kirk commissions Sir John Chiesley and Robert Blair to go to London and work for uniformity of religion between the two kingdoms according to the Covenant. RCRS
14 Cromwell at Carlisle from where he marches into Yorkshire and sets up his quarters at Knottingley intending to enforce the submission of Pontefract and Scarborough — the only castles still holding out for the King. HGCW4
16 The officers and men of Ireton's regiment of horse refuse to comply with an order that would disperse the regiment throughout Surrey, Sussex and Hampshire. The regiment sends a petition to Fairfax openly demanding that the King should be brought to justice. PP
27 Expiration of the forty days allowed for negotiation of the Treaty of Newport. Parliament agrees to extend the negotiations. PP
28 Parliament asks the King to disavow Ormond and his preparations in Ireland. HGCW4
30 Colonel Rainsborough killed at Doncaster by four cavaliers from Pontefract who were attempting to take him prisoner. HGCW4
  (End of October) Prince Rupert appointed Admiral of the Royalist fleet at Helvoetsluys. CWS


  (Early November) Sir Marmaduke Langdale escapes from Nottingham Castle. Source: DNB
  (Early November) Mutiny amongst Lord Inchiquin's Protestant troops in Munster over fears that the negotiations between the Marquis of Ormond and the Confederate Supreme Council will grant too many concession to Irish Catholics. Ormond and Inchiquin succeed in pacifying the mutineers but the situation remains tense. CIR
  (First week of November) Meetings begin in London between representatives of the Levellers and leading Independents to reconcile the Agreement of the People with the Army's constitutional proposals. John Lilburne speaks against giving political power to the Army. PP
5 After discreet negotiations between the Earl of Warwick and Rear-Admiral Batten, the Constant Warwick defects back to the Parliamentarian fleet. CN
7 Under pressure from radicals, General Fairfax summons a General Council of the Army at St. Albans to discuss Army grievances. Representatives of the common soldiers are excluded. HGCW4, PP
  Major-General Lambert leaves Edinburgh. RCRS
8 After the Hind defects to the Parliamentarian fleet, Prince Rupert takes his remaining ships into the inner harbour at Helvoetsluys. CN
10 Henry Ireton introduces the Army Remonstrance to General Council of the Army, calling for the purging of Parliament and the trial of the King. Fairfax and a majority of Council members oppose the Remonstrance. PP
  Representatives of the northern regiments meet at York. Spokesmen are chosen to go to St Albans to support demands that the King should be brought to justice. However, Cromwell insists that a final appeal should be made to the King to accept the Newport propositions in full, which would make Army intervention unnecessary. PP
11 A petition from the regiments of Fleetwood, Whalley and Barkstead presented to the General Council of the Army demanding the dissolution of Parliament and a new constitutional settlement; Colonel Pride's regiment denounces the Treaty of Newport and demands justice against the King. PP
15 The General Council of the Army declares its desire for peace with the King. HGCW4
  The committee of Levellers and Independents meeting in London agrees to recommend the summoning of a convention to revise the Agreement of the People, which would then be presented to Parliament for endorsement, after which a new Parliament would be elected under a new franchise. The committee's suggestions sent to the Army at St Albans. PP
  After debating the King's latest answers from Newport, the House of Commons votes to accept his request to come to London on completion of the Treaty "in honour, freedom and safety" and to have his lands and revenues restored. PP
18 The General Council of the Army at St Albans adopts the Army Remonstrance. HGCW4
  Sir William Batten takes advantage of the Earl of Warwick's offer of an amnesty and resigns his commission in the Royalist fleet. ODNB
  Parliament names seven persons to be banished from England for their part in the recent insurrections: Lords Norwich, Holland, Capel, Loughborough, Sir Henry Lingen, Rowland Laugharne and Sir John Owen. HGCW4
20 The Army Remonstrance presented to Parliament by Colonel Ewer. MPs vote to defer considering it in the hope of a satisfactory outcome at the Treaty of Newport. HGCW4
21 The Earl of Warwick's fleet sails from Helvoetsluys to avoid spending the winter there, leaving Prince Rupert free to use the port as he wishes. The Prince of Wales appoints Rupert admiral of the Royalist fleet. Rupert sends Captain Marshall in the Roebuck and Captain Allin in the Guinea to search for prizes in the Channel and North Sea. CN, MPRC, PRA
  Parliament names seven persons to be absolutely excepted from pardon for their roles in the wars: the Marquis of Newcastle, Lord Digby, Lord Byron, Sir Marmaduke Langdale, Sir Richard Grenville, Sir Francis Dodington and Judge David Jenkins. HLJ
  Confederate envoys return from Rome. TCW
22 Formation of the Western Association in Scotland, modelled upon the military associations of the English Parliament, to co-ordinate military action of Covenanters in western Scotland. RCRS
24 Army headquarters moved from St. Albans to Windsor. HGCW4
25 Colonel Ewer sent to relieve Colonel Hammond of his charge of the King at Carisbrooke. HGCW4
  John Lilburne and John Wildman go to Windsor with proposals to bring the Army Remonstrance closer to the Agreement of the People. PP
26 Henry Ireton demands the forced dissolution of Parliament. PP
27 Parliamentary commissioners at Newport take their leave of the King and bring his final answers to London. HGCW4
  Parliament again defers discussion of the Army Remonstrance. HGCW4
28 The General Council of the Army resolves to march to occupy London and that a Declaration justifying its actions should be drafted. The General Council also agrees to the formation of a committee comprising four Levellers, four London Independents, four Army officers and four radical MPs to formulate the final form of the Agreement of the People. PP
  General Fairfax sends orders to Lieutenant-General Cromwell at Pontefract summoning him to Army headquarters. Reluctant to act against Parliament, Cromwell moves south very slowly. PP
30 The Army issues a Declaration justifying its march to occupy London. PP
  Parliament votes by 125 to 58 to reject the Army Remonstrance. PP, HCJ


1 Under orders from General Fairfax, King Charles is moved from the Isle of Wight to Hurst Castle on the mainland. Source: HGCW4
  Denzil Holles presents the report of the parliamentary commissioners at Newport to the House of Commons. HGCW4
2 The Army marches into London. HGCW4
4-5 After an all-night sitting, Parliament votes by 129 to 83 to continue negotiations with the King. PP
  Army officers and Independent MPs meet at Whitehall. Commissary-General Ireton and Colonel Harrison call for the dissolution of Parliament but the civilian MPs resist this measure and call for a purge. HGCW4
6 Pride's Purge. Colonel Thomas Pride prevents MPs proscribed by the Army from entering Parliament; about forty-five are arrested. HGCW4, PP
7 A further fifty MPs prevented by soldiers from entering Parliament on the second day of the Purge. Three more are placed under arrest. PP
  Oliver Cromwell arrives in London from Pontefract. Upon entering the House of Commons, he receives the thanks of the remaining eighty MPs for his victories. HGCW4, PP
8 Fairfax demands that the Army's arrears be paid in full. Soldiers under Colonels Deane and Hewson sent to occupy the City and to seize funds from Parliament's treasuries. PP
  The House of Commons holds a day of Fasting and Humiliation. After hearing sermons from Stephen Marshall, Joseph Caryl and Hugh Peter, Parliament adjourns until 12 December. PP
10 Lilburne publishes the amended version of the Agreement of the People. HGCW4
11 Discussions on the revised Agreement of the People open at Whitehall between Leveller leaders, London Independents and the Army Council. HGCW4
12 Soldiers prevent a further nine MPs from entering Parliament when it re-assembles. PP
  Several of the imprisoned MPs are released but four leading Presbyterians (Sir William Waller, Edward Massie, Lionel Copley and Sir John Clotworthy) are charged with inviting the Scots to invade England and placed in close confinement at St James's. The sheriff of London, Richard Browne, is also arrested. PP
  The Army Council insists upon making further revisions to the Agreement of the People. PP
13 Parliament reinstates the Vote of No Addresses and annuls the Treaty of Newport. HGCW4
14 Cromwell visits the Duke of Hamilton in confinement at Windsor, hoping to gain enough information to convict the arrested Presbyterians. Hamilton refuses to betray his English associates. HGCW4
  Remaining Members of Parliament vote by 35 votes to 18 to approach General Fairfax for an explanation of the Army's actions. TRP, HCJ
  Lilburne and Overton walk out of the Whitehall debates in protest at the Army Council's proposed revisions of the Agreement of the People . ODNB
15 The Solemn Protestation of the imprisoned MPs presented to Parliament calling for proceedings against the Army and its supporters. Parliament passes an ordinance excluding all who had a hand in the preparation of the Protestation from sitting in Parliament or holding public office ever again. PP
  The Army Council resolves that the King should be brought to Windsor. HGCW4
17 The Army Council warns Presbyterian ministers in London to abate their preaching against the Purge. PP
19 King Charles taken to Winchester by Major Cobbett. HGCW4
  Lords Denbigh, Pembroke, Salisbury and North visit Fairfax. The Earl of Denbigh chosen to carry proposals from the Council of Officers to the King. HGCW4
20 All MPs required to declare that they had dissented, or would have dissented had they been present, from the vote on 5 December to continue negotiations with the King. TRP
  Sixteen of the imprisoned MPs released, leaving twenty in the Army's custody. PP
  Colonel Harrison meets the King at Farnham. HGCW4
21 Elections for the Common Council of London rigged to exclude Presbyterians and Royalist sympathisers. PP
23 King Charles arrives at Windsor Castle. Riots in support of the King break out in the town and are violently suppressed by soldiers. HGCW4, LDCI
  The House of Commons appoints a committee to consider how to proceed against the King. HGCW4
25 Cromwell exhorts the Army Council to spare the King's life if he will accept the terms conveyed by the Earl of Denbigh. HGCW4
  Four of the imprisoned MPs released, leaving sixteen in custody. PP
26 King Charles refuses to see the Earl of Denbigh, thus rejecting the last overture from the Army Council. HGCW4
27 The House of Commons votes that all court ceremonial at Windsor should be banned and that the number of servants attending the King should be reduced. LDCI
28 First reading in Parliament of an ordinance instituting a special court for the trial of the King. HGCW4
  A deputation of Levellers presents a petition to Fairfax protesting at the Council of Officers' alteration of the Agreement of the People. ODNB
28 Alarmed at developments in London, the Confederate Supreme Council agrees to the terms offered by the Marquis of Ormond for an alliance between the Irish Confederates and the Royalists. CIR
29 Second reading of the ordinance for the King's trial. LDCI


AECW: Atlas of the English Civil War, P.R. Newman (London 1985)

AOI: Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum C.H. Firth and R.S. Raitt (eds), 1911

ATKA: All the King's Armies, Stuart Reid (Staplehurst 1998)

CIR: Cromwell in Ireland, James Scott Wheeler (New York 1999)

CN: Cromwell's Navy, Bernard Capp (Oxford 1989)

CWA: Catechisms of the Westminster Assembly John Murray (The Presbyterian Guardian 1943)

CWS: Cromwell's Wars at Sea, John Barratt (Barnsley 2006)

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography

FWF: The Fight at Willoughby Field George Fellowes,

HCJ: House of Commons Journal

HGCW4: History of the Great Civil War vol. iv, S.R. Gardiner (London 1894)

HHAP: History and Histriography of the Agreements of the People, E. Vernon & P. Baker (Palgrave 2012)

HLJ: House of Lords Journal

HOP: The History of the Ancient Borough of Pontefract Benjamin Boothroyd (Pontefract 1807)

LCB: The Levellers, a Chronology and Bibliography Roderick Moore, The Digger Archives

LDCI: The Last Days of Charles I, Graham Edwards (Stroud 1999)

LSBB: Last Stand of the Blue Bonnets: the battle of WInwick Pass John Barratt (Miniature Wargames Magazine)

MPRC: Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers vol iii, Eliot Warburton (London 1849)

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

PP: Pride's Purge, David Underdown (Oxford 1971)

PRA: Prince Rupert, admiral and general-at-sea, Frank Kitson (London 1998)

RCRS: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Scotland 1644-1651, David Stevenson (Newton Abbott 1977)

SOC: The Siege of Colchester Alf Thompson, Sealed Knot Knowledge Base

TCG: The Cromwellian Gazetteer, Peter Gaunt (Stroud 1987)

TCK: The Confederation of Kilkenny C.P. Meehan (Dublin 1846)

TCW: The Civil Wars, a military history of England, Scotland & Ireland 1638-60, Kenyon and Ohlmeyer eds) (Oxford 1998)

TRP: The Rump Parliament, Blair Worden (Cambridge 1974)

< 1647 1649 >