Parliament's Scottish allies invade England — the Oxford Parliament — the battle of Marston Moor — Montrose begins his campaign in Scotland — Lostwithiel — Second Newbury.


3-11 The Convention of Estates meets in Edinburgh to finalise plans for the invasion of England. Source: TSR
3 The Convention appoints the Earl of Loudoun, Viscount Maitland, Wariston and Robert Barclay as commissioners to go to London to oversee the implementation of the Solemn League and Covenant. TSR
4 Parliamentarian bombardment of Arundel Castle in Sussex begins. SCWI
6 Prince Rupert appointed Captain-General of Royalist forces in north Wales and the Marches. RWE, DNB
  Surrender of Arundel Castle to Sir William Waller. SCWI
10 Lord Byron summons Nantwich, Parliament's last remaining stronghold in Cheshire. Byron besieges the town when the summons is refused. ATKA
11 Royalist bombardment of Nantwich begins. N1644
  The Earl of Carbery issues a declaration at Carmarthen calling upon the trained bands of south-west Wales to besiege Pembroke, where John Poyer has declared for Parliament. RWE
14 An ammunition convoy on its way to Nantwich ambushed and captured by Colonel Mytton and Parliamentarians from Wem. ATKA, N1644
16 A second summons to surrender Nantwich is refused. N1644
17 Lord Leven and the Committee of Estates accompanying the Scottish army resolve to invade England rather than wait for reinforcements and supplies. TSR
18 500 Royalist soldiers killed in an unsuccessful attempt to storm the defences of Nantwich. ATKA, N1644
19 The Scottish invasion: the Army of the Covenant under the command of the Earl of Leven crosses the River Tweed and marches into England. HGCW1, ATKA
  Sir Thomas Fairfax arrives at Manchester en route to the relief of Nantwich. TGCW
20 King Charles commissions the Earl of Antrim to raise an army of 10,000 Irish soldiers for service in England and 3,000 for Scotland. HGCW1
21 The Marquis of Ormond sworn in as Lord-Deputy of Ireland in place of the Lord-Justices Sir John Borlase and Sir Henry Tichborne. TCK, ODNB
  Fairfax marches from Manchester to the relief of Nantwich with a combined force of around 3,000 foot and 1,800 horse from Lancashire, Cheshire and Yorkshire. ATKA
22 King Charles formally opens the Oxford Parliament. HGCW1
23 A squadron of six Parliamentarian warships under Captain Richard Swanley arrives in Milford Haven and begins co-operating with Rowland Laugharne against the Pembrokeshire Royalists. RWE
24 Prince Rupert created Earl of Holderness and Duke of Cumberland. DNB
  Fairfax defeats a force of 200 Royalists attempting to block his advance as he passes through the forest of Delamere in Cheshire. ATKA
25 Battle of Nantwich: Sir Thomas Fairfax and Sir William Brereton defeat Lord Byron and raise the siege of Nantwich. Byron flees with his cavalry to Chester; infantry contingents from Ireland surrender and go over to Parliament's side. HGCW1, ATKA
26 The Oxford Parliament passes a declaration that the Scots have broken the treaty of 1642 and must therefore be treated as invaders. HGCW1
27 The Oxford Parliament writes to the Earl of Essex requesting his assistance in bringing about peace. HGCW1
28 Lord Leven's advance guard at Morpeth, fifteen miles north of Newcastle. The Scottish army delayed by floods following a sudden thaw. ATKA
  The Earls of Antrim and Montrose sign a formal agreement whereby Montrose will raise Royalist forces in north-east Scotland and on the borders and declare for the King by 1 April; Antrim undertakes to raise forces in Ireland and the Western Isles and invade the Marquis of Argyll's lands by the same date. RCRS
  The Marquis of Newcastle marches from York to reinforce Newcastle. ODNB
  Colonel John Belasyse appointed governor of York after the death of Sir William Savile. ATKA


  (Early February) The Earl of Antrim returns to Kilkenny to ask the Supreme Council to back his scheme to raise 2,000 men to invade Scotland and an army of 10,000 to fight for the King in England. The Council agrees to the Scottish expedition but postpones a decision on the army for England pending the outcome of negotiations with the King at Oxford. Source: CCW
1 The Convention of Estates orders a second levy in Scotland to form a reserve army. RCRS
  James Graham, Earl of Montrose, commissioned the King's Lieutenant-General in Scotland. HGCW1
  Oliver Cromwell promoted to Lieutenant-General of Horse in the Eastern Association army. HGCW1
2 The Marquis of Newcastle occupies Newcastle with his army from Yorkshire; the Scottish army appears to the north of the city only hours after his arrival. ATKA
3 Lord Leven's summons for the surrender of Newcastle rejected. The Scots storm and capture outworks to the north-east of the city. ATKA
5 A Parliamentary ordinance decrees that every Englishman aged 18 or over must sign the Covenant. HGCW1, AOI
  Prince Rupert appointed President of Wales, with powers to appoint and dismiss civilian administrators and military officers within his jurisdiction. RWE, ODNB
6 Prince Rupert leaves Oxford for Shrewsbury to take up his appointment in Wales, accompanied by his cavalry regiment and some infantry. RWE
  Scottish artillery landed at Blyth on the Northumberland coast but takes a further two days to be dragged to Newcastle. ATKA
8 Scottish attack on Gateshead repulsed. AECW
  Prince Rupert arrives at Worcester, where he orders new defences to be built, re-organises the military administration of Worcestershire, and forbids Royalist soldiers from plundering. RWE
10 Lord Inchiquin arrives at Oxford to claim the presidency of Munster, but the King has promised it to the Earl of Portland. ODNB
  Parliamentarian cavalry from Hull rout Royalists at Kilham in Yorkshire then raid Bridlington. AECW
13 The Earl of Montrose commissioned King's Lieutenant-General in Scotland. HGCW1
15 Prince Rupert advances to Bridgnorth in Shropshire, where he installs an experienced soldier, Sir Lewis Kirke, as governor. RWE
16 The Committee for Both Kingdoms (England and Scotland) consisting of seven peers, fourteen MPs and four Scots commissioners formed to direct Parliament's war effort. HGCW1
19 Prince Rupert arrives at Shrewsbury to direct Royalist operations in Wales and the Marches. ATKA
  Sir Marmaduke Langdale leads twenty-five troops of horse from Hexham to drive the Covenanters from Corbridge on the River Tyne. Royalist raids out of Prudhoe threaten Scottish lines of communication. ATKA, AECW
20 Parliamentarian raiders from Hull storm Whitby in Yorkshire. AECW
22 The Committee of Estates orders the Scottish army in Ulster to remain there to protect Protestant interests rather than reinforce Leven's army in England. RCRS
22 In collaboration with Captain Swanley's naval squadron, Rowland Laugharne crosses Milford Haven to attack the Royalist fort at Pill opposite Pembroke. MCW1, RWE
23 The Earl of Antrim arrives at Kilkenny to negotiate for Irish troops to serve the King. HGCW1
  Lord Leven leaves a token force to cover Newcastle and draws up the Covenanter army along the River Tyne. ATKA
24 Surrender of Pill to Colonel Laugharne. The Royalists abandon Haverfordwest. TCW
26 Surrender of Roch Castle in Pembrokeshire to Laugharne's forces. MCW2
28 By-passing Newcastle, the Covenanters cross the Tyne at Ovingham, Bywell and Eltringham, then march towards Sunderland. ATKA
29 Parliamentarian forces from Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire advance towards Newark. TGCW


3 The King proposes peace negotiations between the Oxford and Westminster Parliaments. Source: HGCW1
  Colonel Lambert recaptures Bradford for the Yorkshire Parliamentarians. AECW
4 Lord Leven and the Covenanters occupy Sunderland. The Marquis of Newcastle and the northern Royalist army cross the Tyne in pursuit. ATKA
  Lambert's cavalry storm and capture Tadcaster. AECW
  The Committee for Both Kingdoms resolves that Sir William Waller's army should march against Lord Hopton in southern England, supported by a cavalry brigade from the Earl of Essex's army. The Earl of Manchester's army ordered to make a diversionary march towards Oxford. RG
  Prince Rupert defeats Colonel Mytton at Market Drayton in Shropshire. RWE, ECWB
6 Sir John Meldrum besieges the Royalist stronghold of Newark. TGCW
  The Marquis of Newcastle crosses the River Wear at Lumley Castle. ATKA
  Three ships from Captain Swanley's squadron (Swallow, Prosperous and Crescent) begin bombarding Tenby in Pembrokeshire. MCW2 ECWB
7 The armies of Leven and Newcastle face one another in hills south-east of Sunderland, but bad weather prevents a battle. Newcastle withdraws to Durham, Leven to Sunderland. ATKA
  In co-operation with Captain Swanley's squadron, Colonel Laugharne arrives before Tenby and begins a three-day artillery bombardment of the walls. MCW1
8 Parliamentarian attempt to storm Newark repulsed. TGCW
9 The Westminster Parliament rejects the King's proposals for a treaty and refuses to recognise the legitimacy of the Oxford Parliament. HGCW1
  Parliament appoints Major-General Robert Monro commander-in-chief in Ireland. ODNB
  Colonel Laugharne's forces storm and capture Tenby. MCW1, TCW
10 Carew Castle surrenders to Captain Poyer, to complete the Parliamentarian conquest of Pembrokeshire. MCW1
11 Prince Rupert confers with Lord Byron at Chester regarding the defences of the city. At Byron's request, Rupert blocks the appointment of Sir Francis Gamull as governor. ATKA, RWE
12 The Oxford Parliament declares that members of the Westminster Parliament are guilty of treason for inviting a Scottish army to invade England. HGCW1
  The trial of Archbishop Laud opens in London. (Continues until October) HGCW2
  Prince Rupert receives orders from the King to relieve the siege of Newark. TGCW
  Lord Leven advances towards Durham but withdraws when the Marquis of Newcastle declines to give battle. ATKA
13 After a month-long siege, Hopton Castle in Shropshire surrenders to Sir Michael Woodhouse, who orders that the soldiers of the garrison be bound and have their throats cut one by one. ECWB, RWE
15 The Earl of Montrose joins the Marquis of Newcastle at Durham. Montrose requests troops for his an expedition to Scotland. Newcastle can spare him only 100 cavalry and dragoons commanded by Sir Robert Clavering. RCRS
  Covenanter attack on the Royalist garrison at South Shields repulsed. ATKA
  Prince Rupert at Bridgnorth in Shropshire with 800 horse. He is met by Colonel Tillier with over 1,000 musketeers drawn from the regiments returning from Ireland. TGCW
16 Rupert arrives at Wolverhampton where 300 men from the garrison at Dudley Castle join the march to Newark. TGCW
  Sir William Waller's army at Farnborough reinforced by a brigade of horse under the command of Sir William Balfour from the Earl of Essex's army. CWSA
18 Prince Rupert at Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire to rendezvous with Lord Loughborough. Rupert's army now comprises 3,500 horse, 3,000 foot and three field guns. TGCW
19 Directed by the Marquis of Huntly, Sir John Gordon of Haddo leads a raid on Aberdeen to kidnap leading Covenanters. A1645, RCRS
20 Covenanters storm and capture the Royalist garrison at South Shields and mount a successful raid on Chester-le-Street. ATKA
  Prince Rupert at Bingham, ten miles south-west of Newark. TGCW
21 Prince Rupert relieves the siege of Newark. Meldrum surrenders his arms and artillery and retreats to Hull. Discouraged Parliamentarian commanders evacuate Lincoln, Gainsborough and Sleaford. ATKA, TGCW
23 The Marquis of Newcastle advances towards Sunderland along the north bank of the River Wear. ATKA
24 The armies of Newcastle and Leven face one another north of Sunderland. There is fierce skirmishing around East Boldon but neither commander commits to a battle. ATKA
  The Marquis of Huntly occupies Aberdeen for the King. RCRS
  Confederate agents arrive at Oxford to negotiate with the King. TCW
25 Colonel Belasyse storms Bradford in Yorkshire but the attack is repulsed. Belasyse withdraws to Selby. SOB
  Sir William Waller at West Meon in Hampshire to guard the road from Winchester to Petersfield. HGCW1
  Sir William Vaughan and Colonel Ellis defeat Colonel Mytton at Lilleshall in Shropshire. RWE
26 The Marquis of Newcastle withdraws to Durham. ATKA
  Sir William Waller reviews his army at East Meon in Hampshire. CWSA
27 Lord Hopton and Lord Forth occupy Alresford in Hampshire. HGCW1
28 Skirmishing between units of the Parliamentarian and Royalist armies in Hampshire. CWSA
29 Battle of Cheriton (Alresford) in Hampshire. Sir William Waller defeats Lord Hopton and Lord Forth, ending the Royalist advance in the south-east. Parliament's first decisive victory of the war. HGCW1
  Viscount Muskerry and Confederate agents at Oxford demand complete freedom for the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland and an independent Irish parliament in exchange for an Irish army to serve the King. HGCW1
30 Hopton and Forth withdraw to Basing House, then to Reading. ATKA


1 Lord Leven and the Covenanter army advances from Sunderland to Easington. Source: ATKA
  Colonel Fincher leads three of Sir William Waller's cavalry regiments to beat up the Royalist garrison at Newbury in Berkshire, taking 100 prisoners. CWSA, RG
  Lord Herbert, newly-created Earl of Glamorgan, commissioned to command the army of 10,000 Irish troops which King Charles expects to secure from his negotiations with the Confederates. ODNB, CCW
2 Lieutenant-General George Goring released from the Tower in an exchange of prisoners and returns to the north. ODNB
4 Prince Rupert returns to Shrewsbury. RWE
5 Sir William Waller seizes Christchurch in Hampshire and captures 400 Royalist horse and 100 foot. CWSA, RG
6 The Committee for Both Kingdoms orders the Earl of Essex and the Earl of Manchester to rendezvous at Aylesbury on 19 April and advance against the King at Oxford. Neither general obeys the order. HGCW1
  The London Brigade from Waller's army captures the fortified manor at Bishop's Waltham in Hampshire. CWSA
7 The Earl of Montrose and Sir Robert Clavering enter Scotland with a small Royalist army from England. RCRS
8 Lord Leven advances into the Quarrington Hills, south-west of Durham, threatening the Marquis of Newcastle's lines of communication. ATKA
9 Sir William Waller storms Winchester. He captures the town but the Royalists hold out in the castle. CWSA
10 The Convention of Estates appoints the Earl of Callendar commander of Covenanter forces in the south of Scotland and the Borders to counter Montrose's advance, while the Marquis of Argyll leads an army to confront the Marquis of Huntly at Aberdeen. RCRS
11 The Fairfaxes, Colonel Lambert and Sir John Meldrum join forces to storm and capture Selby in Yorkshire, threatening the Royalist stronghold of York. ATKA, TGCW
  King Charles reviews the 10,000-strong Oxford army at Aldbourne Chase near Newbury in Berkshire. HGCW1
12 The Marquis of Newcastle evacuates Royalist garrisons at Durham and Lumley Castle and withdraws to defend the line of the River Tees at Piercebridge. ATKA
13 After learning of the capture of Selby, the Marquis of Newcastle marches straight to the defence of York. ATKA
14 Lord Leven sends cavalry to harass the rear of Newcastle's retreating army and follows him south with his main force. The Covenanters occupy Darlington. ATKA
15 The Covenanters reach Northallerton where a single Royalist regiment offers futile resistance. AECW
  The Earl of Montrose occupies Dumfries for the King. TCW
  (Mid-April) Carmarthen surrenders to Colonel Laugharne's Parliamentarians. MCW1
16 Lord Leven abandons his pursuit of Newcastle's army at Thormanby and marches to Boroughbridge. ATKA
  The Oxford Parliament prorogued until 8 October. HGCW1
17 Queen Henrietta Maria, who is pregnant, leaves Oxford to spend her confinement in Exeter. She will never see King Charles again. HGCW1
  A delegation of Irish Protestants arrives at Oxford to negotiate with the King. TCW
  The Marquis of Argyll campaigns against the Royalists in north-eastern Scotland (until July). TCW
  Parliamentarian garrison at Brampton Bryan in Herefordshire surrenders to Sir Michael Woodhouse. TCG
  Sir William Waller returns to his base at Farnham Castle in Surrey. The London Brigade marches for home. RG
18 The Marquis of Newcastle occupies York, sending his cavalry to join Prince Rupert in Lancashire. HGCW1, TGCW
  The armies of Lord Leven and Lord Fairfax join forces at Wetherby in Yorkshire. ATKA
  Sir William Balfour's cavalry brigade returns from Waller's to the Earl of Essex's army. CWSA
20 Prince Maurice besieges the port of Lyme in Dorset. SGCW
  Montrose forced to abandon Dumfries and retreat back across the border at the approach of the Earl of Callendar. Sir Robert Clavering insists upon returning to Tyneside. RCRS, SA
20-3 Allied armies of Leven and Fairfax besiege York. SGCW, TGCW
22 Waller's army at Farnham reinforced with a new London Trained Band brigade under the command of Sir James Harrington. RG
24 The Allies capture Stamford Bridge near York. AECW
  Scottish Royalists led by Irvine of Drum storm the burgh of Montrose. SA
25 Prince Rupert attends a Council of War at Oxford. He advises the King to defend the ring of fortresses around Oxford and to sustain them with a central cavalry force. This would leave Prince Maurice free to complete the conquest of the west while Rupert goes to assist the Marquis of Newcastle at York. HGCW1
28 Royalist attempt to storm Lyme repulsed. SGCW
29 The Marquis of Huntly abandons Aberdeen at the approach of Covenanter forces. A1645


2 The Marquis of Argyll recaptures Aberdeen for the Covenanters. The Marquis of Huntly flees into the Highlands. Source: RCRS
5 Prince Rupert leaves Oxford for the north. HGCW1
6 The Earl of Manchester storms and captures Lincoln. The Eastern Association cavalry under Cromwell despatched to join Lord Fairfax and Lord Leven at the siege of York. ATKA
  The Earl of Montrose created Marquis. ODNB
8 Lieutenant-General Charles Gerard marches from Oxford to take up his commission as Royalist commander in south-west Wales in place of the Earl of Carbery. RWE
10 Montrose attacks the Covenanters at Morpeth in Northumberland. The town surrenders immediately. Montrose orders up artillery from Newcastle to besiege the castle. Sir Robert Clavering and Sir Philip Musgrave campaign against Allied positions south of the Tyne. AECW, RCRS
13 The Earl of Essex's army marches from London to join forces with Sir William Waller and move against Oxford. ATKA
14 Major-General Robert Monro, commander of the Parliamentarian and Scottish forces in Ireland, seizes Belfast. TCW
15 1,000 Covenanter cavalry sent north from the siege of York against Montrose at Morpeth. AECW
  Captain Robert Moulton of the Parliamentarian fleet summons the mayor and aldermen of Swansea in Glamorganshire to surrender, but is disdainfully refused. MCW2
16 Prince Rupert leaves Shrewsbury; beginning of the York March. TGCW
  The Allies capture Buttercrambe Castle near York. AECW
17 The Earl of Essex advances to Henley-on-Thames. ATKA
18 The King orders the evacuation of Reading. Its garrison is incorporated into the Oxford army. HGCW1
19 The Earl of Essex and Sir William Waller move in to occupy Reading. HGCW1
  Sir John Meldrum captures Cawood Castle in Yorkshire for the Allies. AECW
22 The King requests a renewal of the Irish Cessation and hands over negotiations with the Confederates to the Marquis of Ormond. HGCW1
23 Viscount Muskerry and the Confederate agents dismissed from Oxford. HGCW1
  The Earl of Warwick's fleet bring supplies to the defenders of Lyme in Dorset. SGCW
  Lord Byron joins Prince Rupert at Knutsford in Cheshire. ATKA
24 Malmesbury surrenders to Colonel Massie. HGCW1
25 Prince Rupert storms and plunders Stockport in Cheshire. HGCW1
  The Royalists abandon Abingdon, one of the inner ring of fortresses protecting Oxford. HGCW1
26 The Earl of Essex occupies Abingdon. Waller marches towards Wantage, intending to gain a passage over the Thames above Oxford to cut it off from the west. HGCW1
  The King sends Lord Hopton to secure the defences of Bristol. HGCW1
27 Royalist council of war at Oxford decides to garrison the city as a secure base while the King leads the Oxford army in manoeuvres to keep lines of communication with the west open. HGCW1
  The Earl of Manchester arrives at the siege of York, ahead of the main body of the Eastern Association army. AECW
28 Prince Rupert storms and sacks Bolton, the "Geneva of the North"; the defenders are massacred by Lord Derby's troops. HGCW1
29 Covenanters defending Morpeth Castle surrender to the Marquis of Montrose. ATKA


  (Early June) Having secured Glamorganshire for the King, Lieutenant-General Charles Gerard advances westwards into Carmarthenshire. Source: MCW1
1 Lieutenant-General George Goring with 5,000 horse and 800 foot joins Prince Rupert at Bury. HGCW1
2 Sir William Waller seizes Newbridge near Oxford to control crossings of the River Thames above and below the city. The Earl of Essex at Islip, a few miles north-east of Oxford. HGCW1
  A raiding party from Basing House defeated by Colonel Norton near Odiham in Hampshire, seriously weakening the Basing garrison. CWSA
3 King Charles makes a feint attack towards Abingdon, forcing Waller to fall back to its defence. The King marches from Oxford for Worcester with 5,000 horse and 2,500 musketeers, leaving 3,500 pikemen and his heavy artillery in Oxford. HGCW1, BCB
  The Committee for both Kingdoms sends Sir Henry Vane with orders for the commanders of the allied army before York to abandon the siege and march against Rupert in Lancashire. HGCW1
  The main Eastern Association army joins the siege of York. DBD
4 The first Scottish triennial Parliament (sanctioned by the King in 1641) assembles in Edinburgh. TCW
  Colonel Massie captures Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire. HGCW1
  Waller's vanguard captures fifty stragglers from the King's army at Burford. CWSA
  Colonel Richard Norton gathers troops from local garrisons in Hampshire to blockade Basing House. CWSA
5 Bombardment of York begins. ATKA
  Royalist townspeople welcome Prince Rupert into Wigan. ATKA
  The King's army at Evesham. Forty Royalist soldiers accidentally killed when Pershore bridge is pulled down to hinder Waller's advance. DRS
6 The King's army reaches Worcester. HGCW1
  The Earl of Essex meets Waller at Chipping Norton. Waller is ordered to pursue the King's army while Essex marches to the west to relieve the siege of Lyme. ATKA
7 The Covenanters storm three forts covering the western side of York and succeed in capturing two of them. ATKA
  Prince Rupert arrives before Liverpool, defended by Colonel Moore. HGCW1
8 The Marquis of Newcastle opens negotiations for the surrender of York. ATKA
9 Sir William Waller captures Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire, threatening the King's position at Worcester. HGCW1
  Colonel Purefoy captures Compton House in Warwickshire for Parliament. ODNB
10 The allied generals persist in their resolution to maintain the siege of York. Sir Henry Vane convinced that they are right. HGCW1
  Sir William Waller at Evesham. ATKA
11 Prince Rupert captures Liverpool after a five-day bombardment, securing another port for the troops from Ireland. With the exception of Manchester, all of Lancashire is under Royalist control. HGCW1, ATKA
  Parliamentarian forces from Hampshire, Surrey and Sussex arrive to reinforce Colonel Norton at the siege of Basing House. CWSA
12 King Charles withdraws from Worcester and marches to Bewdley. HGCW1
  The Earl of Essex at Blandford in Dorset. He refuses to obey the order of the Committee for Both Kingdoms recalling him to attack Oxford and presses on towards Lyme. HGCW1
  Sir Henry Gage marches with 1,000 troops from Oxford to recapture Boarstall House near Aylesbury for the King. ODNB
13 Royalist Council of War at Bewdley. The King decides to return to Oxford and gather reinforcements to fight Waller. HGCW1
14 The Marquis of Newcastle's terms for the surrender of York rejected by the Allies. HGCW1
  Colonel Ashburnham evacuates Weymouth in Dorset as the Earl of Essex's army approaches. Ashburnham withdraws into Portland Castle. ATKA
15 Prince Maurice abandons the siege of Lyme and falls back to Exeter. HGCW1
  The King's army re-enters Worcester. AECW
16 Allied assault on York miscarries when a mine is exploded prematurely and Major-General Lawrence Crawford leads an unsupported attack. HGCW1
  Queen Henrietta Maria gives birth to a daughter at Exeter. With the Earl of Essex approaching, she moves further west into Cornwall. HGCW2
19 Prince Rupert receives an ambiguous letter from the King which he interprets as an order to advance to York and fight the allied Scots and Parliamentarian armies besieging it. ATKA
  Colonel Thomas Mytton captures a Royalist ammunition convoy at Dudelston in Shropshire en route from Oswestry to Chester. MCW2
21 The King's army, reinforced with infantry from Oxford, musters at Woodstock then marches to occupy Buckingham. The Committee for both Kingdoms, fearing an attack on East Anglia, orders Waller to resume his pursuit of the King. TKW, HGCW1
23 Prince Rupert at Preston, from where he sets out across the Pennines towards York. TGCW
  The Earl of Denbigh and Colonel Mytton capture Oswestry in Shropshire, threatening mid-Wales and disrupting communications between the Royalist strongholds of Shrewsbury and Chester. RWE
24 Major-General Richard Browne marches from London with 4,500 troops to support Sir William Waller. TGCW
25 The Earl of Callendar leads the reserve Covenanter army across the border to suppress Royalist activity in northern England. RCRS
26 Prince Rupert at Skipton. SGCW
  The King's army marches from Buckingham to Brackley. DRS
  Waller's army reinforced with seven troops of horse, 600 foot and eleven guns drawn from the Coventry and Warwick garrisons. BCB
27 Major-General Monro campaigns in Counties Down, Cavan and Monaghan (until 15 July). TCW
  Alasdair MacColla's Irish Brigade sail from Waterford for western Scotland. A1645
28 The Allied commanders receive intelligence of Prince Rupert's approach and prepare to break up the siege of York to face him in battle. HGCW1
  Sir William Waller at Hanwell near Banbury in pursuit of the King; cavalry skirmishes between the two armies. TGCW, DRS
29 Battle of Cropredy Bridge. Waller's attack on the King's army repulsed. The mutinous Parliamentarian army begins to disintegrate through desertion. HGCW1
  Sir Fulke Huncke and Colonel Marrow with Royalist forces from Shrewsbury besiege Colonel Mytton's garrison at Oswestry in Shropshire. MCW2
  The Royalist newsbook Mercurius Aulicus reports that Lieutenant-General Gerard has captured the whole of the county of Carmarthenshire and driven the Parliamentarians of south-west Wales into Pembrokeshire. MCW1
  Parliamentarian bombardment of Basing House begins. CWSA
30 Prince Rupert at Knaresborough. SGCW
  Sir William Waller and senior Parliamentarian officers on his council of war are almost killed when the floor of the room in which they are meeting collapses and they all fall into a cellar. RG


  (Early July) Major-General Monro advances south into County Meath, hoping to bring the Confederate army being formed by the Earl of Castlehaven to battle before it is fully prepared. Source: TCK, ODNB
1 Prince Rupert outmanoeuvres the Allied commanders to approach from the north and raise the siege of York. HGCW1
  After a two-day stand-off, the King's army marches away from Cropredy Bridge as Major-General Browne's reinforcements advance to join forces with Waller's army. CWSA
2 Battle of Marston Moor. Lord Fairfax, Lord Leven and the Earl of Manchester inflict a decisive defeat on Prince Rupert and the Marquis of Newcastle. The battle effectively ends Royalist influence in the north of England. HGCW1
  Sir William Waller and Major-General Browne join forces at Towcester in Northamptonshire. Waller writes to Parliament complaining of the mutinous temper of the London regiments and recommends the formation of a national standing army. ATKA, HGCW2
3 The Marquis of Newcastle, Lord Eythin and other Royalist officers flee to Scarborough and escape to the Continent. HGCW1
  At Whittington in Shropshire, Sir Thomas Myddelton defeats Royalist cavalry under Colonel Marrow attempting to recapture Oswestry. The main Royalist force retreats to Shrewsbury. RWE, TCG
4 Prince Rupert withdraws from York to Richmond where he attempts to regroup Royalist forces. He is joined by the Marquis of Montrose. Rupert withdraws across the Pennines to the Welsh border; Montrose goes to the Scottish border. TKW, HGCW2
  The Allies resume the siege of York. SGCW
  Sir William Waller marches for Northampton, but his army is on the point of mutiny. ATKA
6 Major-General Browne attacked and wounded by his own mutinous troops at Northampton. RG
7 Major-General Browne's London brigade marches to attack Greenland House in Oxfordshire, which falls after a short siege. CWSA
  The King's army at Evesham in Worcestershire. The Council of War decides to pursue the Earl of Essex. HGCW2
8 Newcastle and Eythin arrive at Hamburg. ODNB
  Colonel Robert Blake captures Taunton in Somerset. DNB
  Alasdair MacColla lands at Ardnamurchan on the west coast of Scotland with 1,600 Irish Confederates sent by the Earl of Antrim to fight for the King. A1645, TCW, HGCW2
11 In the absence of Colonel Norton, Colonel Morley summons Basing House to surrender after receiving reinforcements from Southampton. The Marquis of Winchester rejects the summons. CWIH
12 The King's army marches from Evesham to the south-west in pursuit of Essex. HGCW2
13 Unaware of the King's march to the south-west, Waller moves towards Aylesbury to block any potential Royalist advance on London. RG
14 The Queen escapes to France from Falmouth in Cornwall. HGCW2
15 The Scottish Parliament commissions the Marquis of Argyll to march against MacColla's incursion into western Scotland. RCRS
16 Sir Thomas Glenham surrenders the city of York to Lord Fairfax. HGCW1
  Waller attacks Boarstall House in Buckinghamshire but is repulsed. CWSA
17 Lord Inchiquin abandons the Royalist cause and declares for Parliament; many Protestants in Munster follow him. TCW
18 Royalists abandon the siege of Plymouth as the Earl of Essex advances further west. ATKA
20 Waller's battered army re-occupies Abingdon. HGCW2
  The fourth Confederate General Assembly meets at Kilenny. TCW
21 Waller ordered to leave his infantry and artillery at Abingdon and to send the bulk of his cavalry under Lieutenant-General Middleton to secure Dorsetshire. RG
23 The Earl of Essex advances to Tavistock in Devon. Sir Richard Grenville abandons the siege of Plymouth and withdraws into Cornwall. TGCW
25 Prince Rupert and Lord Byron occupy Chester and set about recruiting new forces. TGCW
26 The Earl of Essex crosses the River Tamar at Horsebridge and advances into Cornwall. ATKA
  The King's army arrives at Exeter. Prince Maurice joins the pursuit of the Earl of Essex. ATKA
  Sir William Waller returns to London in order to lay charges of cowardice against Sir Michael Livesey and to resolve a dispute between Major-General Browne and himself over the question of command in the Oxford region. RG
  The Marquis of Ormond commissioned by the King to resume peace negotiations with the Confederate Supreme Council. HGCW2
27 Covenanters led by the Earl of Callendar blockade Newcastle-upon-Tyne. SA
28 The Earl of Essex at Bodmin. TGCW
  The King's army advances to Crediton. DRS
  Colonel Norton opens fire on Basing House with artillery sent from London. SGCW
31 Colonel John Boys rejects Lieutenant-General Middleton's summons to surrender Donnington Castle. Middleton's attempt to storm the castle repulsed. SGCW
  (Late July) The Earl of Castlehaven advances into Ulster. TCW


1 King Charles marches into Cornwall, cutting off the Earl of Essex's escape route. Source: TKW
2 King Charles at Launceston. On learning that the King's army is pursuing him, the Earl of Essex marches from Bodmin to Lostwithiel, hoping to regain contact with the Parliamentarian fleet. ATKA
3 Sir Richard Grenville occupies Tregony in Cornwall to block the Earl of Essex from the west. ATKA
4 Sir Thomas Myddelton and Colonel Mytton raid Welshpool in Montgomeryshire and rout a Royalist cavalry detachment under Sir Thomas Dallison. RWE, ECWB
  Colonel Edward Massie defeats Colonel Nicholas Mynne at Redmarley in Gloucestershire. Mynne, who had defended Herefordshire for the King, is killed in the battle and his regiment destroyed, which exposes Herefordshire to Massie's raids. RWE
6 The King, having hemmed in the Earl of Essex at Lostwithiel, calls upon him to surrender. HGCW2
7 George Goring joins the King's army in Cornwall. HGCW2
  Sir Henry Gage attacks Waller's headquarters at Abingdon with 1,600 horse and foot from Oxford but is repulsed. CWSA, ECWB
8 Lord Wilmot arrested at the head of his troops after his secret negotiations with the Earl of Essex are discovered. George Goring replaces him as Lieutenant-General of Horse. Lord Hopton replaces Wilmot's friend Lord Percy as General of Ordnance. Wilmot and Percy are exiled to France. HGCW2
11 Sir Richard Grenville drives the Earl of Essex's cavalry out of Bodmin and advances to Respryn Bridge, where he makes contact with the King. ATKA
  The Earl of Castlehaven's cavalry crosses the River Bann and skirmishes with Major-General Monro's Covenanters, after which Castlehaven withdraws in face of superior numbers to Charlemont Fort. CCW, TCK
12 Lord Leven and the Covenanters resume the siege of Newcastle. SON
13-14 Royalist detachments establish strongpoints on the east bank of the River Fowey to prevent the Earl of Essex escaping across the river. ATKA
  Lieutenant-General John Middleton, riding to assist the Earl of Essex with 2,000 horse and dragoons, is defeated at Bridgwater by Sir Francis Doddington and forced back to Sherborne. ATKA
18 The Elector Palatine, Prince Rupert's elder brother, arrives in London amid rumours that a party in Parliament are in favour of putting him forward as a candidate for the Crown. His brother's arrival greatly embarrasses Rupert and, for political reasons, prevents the King from appointing Rupert commander-in-chief of the Royalist armies. TKW
  Disguised as a groom, the Marquis of Montrose crosses the border into Scotland with only two companions. RCRS
  Imprisoned Irish insurgents Lord Conor Maguire and Hugh MacMahon escape from the Tower of London. ODNB
19 Sir Marmaduke Langdale and the Northern Horse, on their way to join the King, are routed at Ormskirk in Lancashire by Sir John Meldrum. RWE, ECWB
20 A committee appointed by the Westminster Assembly to prepare a Confession of Faith (completed in 1647).
  Prince Rupert abandons his attempt to raise a new army in north Wales and marches south from Chester, leaving Lord Byron as governor. RWE
21 The Earl of Essex's forces driven from strongpoints at Restmorel Castle and Beacon Hill near Lostwithiel. ATKA
  Sir William Brereton raids Tarvin near Chester; Colonel Marrow mortally wounded in the attack. MCW1
22 Charles Gerard captures Haverfordwest for the King. TCG
26 Lieutenant-General Goring and Sir Thomas Basset occupy St Blazey to the west of Lostwithiel. HGCW2
  Prince Rupert arrives in Bristol. TKW
  Sir William Brereton attacks Langdale's Northern Horse at Malpas in Cheshire. Langdale is wounded but escapes with the Northern Horse into north Wales. RWE, ECWB
  The House of Commons condemns The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce by John Milton and Man's Mortalitie by Richard Overton. TKW
28 The Marquis of Montrose raises the royal standard at Blair Athol and secures command of MacColla's Irish Brigade. 800 Scottish clansmen sent by the Covenanters against the Irish join Montrose instead. RCRS
31 Sir William Balfour breaks out from Lostwithiel with 2,000 Parliamentarian cavalry. The infantry attempt to fight their way out of Lostwithiel but are contained at Castle Dore. The Earl of Essex escapes in a fishing boat. ATKA
  (End of August) The Committee of Estates belatedly realises the threat posed by Montrose and MacColla. Levies mustered from central Scotland; cavalry regiments recalled from the Covenanter army in England. RCRS


1 Battle of Tippermuir. The Marquis of Montrose routs Lord Elcho's Covenanters and occupies Perth. Source: HGCW2
2 Major-General Skippon surrenders the Parliamentarian infantry at Lostwithiel. The troops are disarmed and allowed to march out under guard, promising not to fight again before they reach Southampton. Many die of exposure, disease or starvation on the forced march. ATKA
  The Earl of Manchester ordered to march south to strengthen Parliament's weakened position following the Earl of Essex's march into the west and the disintegration of Waller's army. HGCW2
3 At Newtown in Montgomeryshire, Sir Thomas Myddelton seizes a powder convoy sent north to Chester by Prince Rupert. Myddelton advances to occupy the town of Montgomery and calls upon Lord Herbert of Chirbury to surrender the castle. NUS, MCW1
5 Surrender of Montgomery Castle to Sir Thomas Myddelton. NUS
  The King's army regroups at Tavistock. HGCW2
6 Peace negotiations resumed at Dublin between the Marquis of Ormond and representatives of the Confederates. HGCW2
7 News reaches London of the defeat at Lostwithiel. Parliament does not censure the Earl of Essex for the disaster but blames Lieutenant-General Middleton, whose small cavalry force had been unable to relieve him. TGCW
8 The Earl of Manchester reaches Huntingdon. Enmity between Cromwell and Major-General Crawford; Cromwell contemptuous of Manchester's reluctance to fight. DBD, HGCW2
  Sir Michael Erneley and Sir William Vaughan with troops from Shrewsbury launch a surprise attack on Myddelton's forces at Montgomery. Myddelton retreats with his cavalry to Oswestry to seek help, leaving a garrison under Colonel Mytton besieged in the castle. NUS, ECWB
9 Colonel Henry Gage leads a relief force of 400 musketeers and 250 horse from Oxford to bring supplies of ammunition and gunpowder to Basing House. SGCW, CWIH
10 The King's army at Plymouth. ATKA
  Sir William Waller at Salisbury. TGCW
  Colonel Gage joined by another 100 horse and foot from the Wallingford garrison. CWIH
11 Colonel Wardlaw, governor of Plymouth, refuses the King's summons to surrender. ATKA
  Colonel Gage's relief force fights its way through Parliamentarian lines and marches into Basing House. CWIH
12 The Edinburgh government sets a price on the head of Montrose, dead or alive, for stirring up rebellion in the Highlands. HGCW2
  Colonel Gage drives the Parliamentarians out of Basingstoke, which is plundered to reprovision Basing House. SGCW, CWIH
13 Battle of Aberdeen: Montrose's forces defeat Lord Balfour of Burleigh's Covenanters. The town of Aberdeen sacked and pillaged for several days. HGCW2
14 Leaving a small force to blockade Plymouth, the King withdraws to Exeter. ATKA
  The first survivors of Essex's infantry arrive at Southampton. ATKA
  Colonel Gage successfully withdraws his forces to Oxford. CWIH
16 The Marquis of Argyll at Brechin in pursuit of Montrose, whose forces take to the Highlands. RCRS
18 Battle of Montgomery: Lord Byron attempts to recapture Montgomery Castle but is defeated by Sir John Meldrum, leaving the Parliamentarians in control of central Wales. HGCW2
  The escaped Irish insurgents Maguire and MacMahon recaptured in London. The Spanish ambassador Don Alonso de Cardenas is implicated in their escape bid but denies any involvement. ODNB
19 The Marquis of Argyll occupies Aberdeen. RCRS
21 After reinforcing the garrisons at Weymouth, Poole and Lyme with his infantry, Sir William Waller occupies Shaftesbury with his cavalry. TGCW
22 The Earl of Manchester reaches Watford. HGCW2
23 The King's army at Chard in Somerset. HGCW2
  The Parliamentarians re-occupy Basingstoke and resume the siege of Basing House. CWSA
29 The Earl of Manchester arrives at Reading. HGCW2
  Colonel Jeremy Horton resumes the siege of Donnington Castle near Newbury. SGCW, TGCW
30 The King moves out of Chard. He meets Prince Rupert at South Perrot in Dorset. ATKA


2 The King's army arrives at Sherborne in Dorset. Source: HGCW2
  Sir Thomas Myddelton captures Powis Castle in Montgomeryshire. NUS
5 Prince Rupert returns to Bristol to organise reinforcements for the King's army. HGCW2
8 Sir William Waller falls back from Shaftesbury as the King's army advances. HGCW2
11 Archbishop Laud defends himself against accusations of treason. HGCW2
15 The King's army advances to Salisbury. HGCW2
17 The Earl of Manchester advances to Basingstoke. HGCW2
18 Lieutenant-General Goring drives Waller back from Andover. The King's army occupies Andover. TGCW
  A brigade of London Trained Bands reinforces the garrison at Reading. TGCW
  Colonel Horton abandons the siege of Donnington Castle. HGCW2
19 The Covenanters storm and capture Newcastle-on-Tyne after a two month siege. HGCW2, SA
  The armies of Manchester and Waller join forces at Basingstoke. HGCW2
  The King advances to Whitchurch. ATKA
  Sir Thomas Myddelton storms and plunders the town of Ruthin in Denbighshire but is unable to capture the castle. NUS, TCG
21 The Earl of Essex joins Waller and Manchester at Basingstoke. The commanders are quarrelling, the troops are dejected. HGCW2
22 The King reaches Kingsclere, five miles south of Newbury. TGCW
23 Rather than march to relieve Basing House, the King's army takes up a defensive position at Newbury. A detachment under the Earl of Northampton sent to relieve the siege of Banbury, 50 miles to the north. TGCW
24 Parliament declares "no quarter" for Irish troops captured in England or Wales. HGCW2, HCJ
  The House of Commons requests that the Westminster Assembly prepares a Directory of Worship to replace the Book of Common Prayer. HGCW2
25 The Earl of Northampton relieves the siege of Banbury Castle. HGCW2
26 Colonel Laugharne advances from Pembroke following the departure of Lieutenant-General Gerard from south-west Wales. Laugharne's army is reinforced by Colonel Beale who arrived by sea at Pembroke with 120 foot from London with orders to join Sir Thomas Myddelton in mid-Wales. RWE, NUS
27 Second battle of Newbury. After an inconclusive battle, the Royalists secure their artillery in Donnington Castle and withdraw to Oxford. The King moves to Bath where Prince Rupert has gathered 3,000 horse and foot. HGCW2, ATKA
  Tynemouth Castle surrenders to the Covenanters. ATKA
28 A petition demanding the execution of Archbishop Laud presented at the House of Commons. HGCW2
  Skirmishes continue for several days between the Marquis of Montrose's troops and the Marquis of Argyll's Covenanters around Fyvie Castle in Aberdeenshire. TCW, RCRS
29 Colonel Laugharne summons Laugharne Castle in Pembrokeshire, but Lieutenant-Colonel Russell refuses to surrender. NUS
30 The King and Prince Rupert advance to Burford in Oxfordshire where they rendezvous with the Earl of Northampton. ATKA
  Montrose withdraws from Fyvie Castle to Strathbogie. A1645
31 The House of Commons passes an ordinance of attainder against Archbishop Laud. HGCW2
  Parliamentarian forces begin a two-day bombardment of Laugharne Castle. NUS


1 The Committee of Estates requests that the English Parliament moves quickly to settle the question of Church government and takes steps to suppress the sectaries. Source: HGCW2
  Royalists surrender Liverpool to Sir John Meldrum who spares the lives of captured Irish troops despite the parliamentary ordinance of 24 October directing that Irish prisoners should be put to death. HGCW2
2 Colonel Beale joins forces with Sir Thomas Myddelton at Lampeter in Cardiganshire. MCW1
3 The Royalists surrender Laugharne Castle in Pembrokeshire after the outer defences are taken by storm. NUS
5 Lieutenant-General Charles Gerard reinforces the King's army with 3,000 troops from Wales. ODNB
6 King Charles reviews his reassembled army of 15,000 troops at Oxford. Prince Rupert appointed lieutenant-general of all the King's armies. (The Prince of Wales nominally appointed commander-in-chief). HGCW2
  The Marquis of Montrose abandons Strathbogie and withdraws into the Highlands; the Marquis of Argyll withdraws to Edinburgh. A1645
9 The King and Prince Rupert relieve Donnington Castle and recover the Royalist artillery. The dispirited Parliamentarian army does little to interfere. HGCW2
14 The Marquis of Ormond offers his resignation owing to his discomfort over the negotiations with the Confederates; the King refuses to accept it. HGCW2
15 The House of Commons passes a resolution stating that only ordained ministers should be allowed to preach. HGCW2
19 The Parliamentarian army retires to winter quarters at Reading. HGCW2
  Colonel Norton abandons the siege of Basing House. SGCW
  The Eastern Association complains to Parliament of the high cost of maintaining a regional army; the House of Commons directs the Committee for Both Kingdoms to consider a new framework for financing Parliament's armies. HGCW2
20 Proposals drawn up by the "Peace Party" in the House of Commons and the Scots sent to Oxford. HGCW2
22 The House of Lords debates the ordinance of attainder against Archbishop Laud. HGCW2
  Irish rebel Hugh MacMahon hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. HGCW2
23 Royalist army retires to winter quarters at Oxford. HGCW2
  Parliamentary peace commissioners jeered and insulted on their arrival at Oxford. HGCW2
  Publication of Areopagitica by John Milton, written in defence of freedom of the press. ODNB
24 The King receives Parliament's peace proposals. HGCW2
25 Oliver Cromwell presents his complaints against the Earl of Manchester's leadership in the House of Commons. The quarrels among the army leaders become political, reflecting divisions between the Lords and Commons and between the Presbyterians and Independents. A committee chaired by Zouch Tate, MP for Northampton, is appointed to investigate Cromwell's accusations. HGCW2
27 Peace commissioners return to London with the King's request for a safe conduct for his own representatives to present his answer in Parliament. HGCW2
28 The Earl of Manchester answers Cromwell's accusations in the House of Lords and makes his own attack on Cromwell. HGCW2
  (End of November) Alasdair MacColla rejoins the Marquis of Montrose at Blair Atholl with an additional 1,000 clansmen from the western Highlands. A1645


1 At Dublin, the Marquis of Ormond negotiates a renewal of the Cessation of Arms with Confederate delegates led by Viscount Muskerry. Source: TCK
2 The Earl of Manchester issues a written defence against Cromwell's accusations; the House of Lords demands an inquiry into the quarrel. HGCW2
3 Both Houses vote to continue negotiations with the King. HGCW2
  Members of the English peace party meet with Scottish commissioners to discuss the possibility of impeaching Cromwell as an "incendiary between the two nations". HGCW2
4 Denzil Holles presents Manchester's counter-accusations against Cromwell in the House of Commons; Cromwell replies with a fierce attack on Manchester's military inefficiency. HGCW2
7 Sir John Hotham sentenced to death for plotting to betray Hull to the Royalists. HGCW2
8 Sir Thomas Myddelton storms and captures Abbey-Cwm-Hir in Radnorshire. NUS, ECWB
9 Cromwell argues in the House of Commons that the war will never be brought to a successful conclusion unless Parliament's military resources are re-organised. Zouch Tate proposes that no member of the Lords or Commons should hold any military or naval command. HGCW2
  Court-martial of Captain Hotham begins. ODNB
13 The Marquis of Montrose and Alasdair MacColla invade the Campbell territories of western Scotland to burn and plunder. HGCW2
14 Major-General Holborn and Anthony Ashley Cooper relieve the siege of Taunton, defended by Colonel Blake. HGCW2
17 The Earls of Richmond and Southampton at Westminster with letters from the King requesting that Parliament appoint commissioners for another round of peace negotiations. HGCW2
18 1,200 Clubmen assemble at Wem in Shropshire to organise resistance to the plundering of local Royalist garrisons. AECW
19 The Self-Denying Ordinance passed by the House of Commons. HGCW2, HCJ
  Parliamentarians and Covenanters besiege Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire. TCW
21 Colonel Laugharne advances on Cardigan; the town surrenders but Major Slaughter remains defiant in the castle. Laugharne sends for artillery from Pembrokeshire. MCW2
22 Sir Thomas Myddelton besieges Chirk Castle in Denbighshire but is repulsed after three days. NUS, ECWB
24 Captain Hotham sentenced to death. HGCW2
25 Sir Thomas Fairfax joins Colonel Sands to besiege Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire. HOP
27 King Charles commends the Earl of Glamorgan to the Marquis of Ormond as an assistant in negotiations with the Confederates. HGCW2
29 Laugharne storms and captures Cardigan Castle. MCW2


A1645: Auldearn 1645, the Marquis of Montrose's Scottish campaign, Stuart Reid (Osprey 2003)

AECW: Atlas of the English Civil War, P.R. Newman (London 1985)

AOI: Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, C.H. Firth and R.S. Raitt (eds), 1911

ATKA: All the King's Armies, Stuart Reid (Staplehurst 1998)

BCB: The Battle of Cropredy Bridge 1644, Robert Morris (Bristol 1994)

CCW: Confederate Catholics at War 1641-49, Pádraig Lenihan (Cork 2001)

CWSA: The Campaigns of Sir William Waller's Southern Association, Laurence Spring (Bristol 1997)

CWIH: The Civil War in Hampshire 1642-45, Rev. G. N. Godwin (Southampton 1904)

DBD: The English Civil War Day By Day, Wilfrid Emberton (Stroud 1995)

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography

DRS: Diary of Richard Symonds

ECWB: English Civil War Battles database, Tim Williams

HGCW1: History of the Great Civil War vol. i, S.R. Gardiner (London 1888)

HGCW2: History of the Great Civil War vol. ii, S.R. Gardiner (London 1889)

HCJ: House of Commons Journal

HOP: The History of the Ancient Borough of Pontefract, Benjamin Boothroyd (Pontefract 1807)

MCW1: Memoirs of the Civil War in Wales and the Marches vol.i, J.R. Phillips (London 1874)

MCW2: Memoirs of the Civil War in Wales and the Marches vol ii, J.R. Phillips (London 1874)

N1644: Nantwich 1644, Alf Thompson (Orders of the day, Volume 31, Issue 1, Jan/Feb 1999)

NUS: A Nation Under Siege, the civil war in Wales 1642-48, Peter Gaunt (HMSO 1991)

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

RCRS: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Scotland 1644-1651, David Stevenson (Newton Abbott 1977)

RG: Roundhead General, a military biography of Sir William Waller, John Adair (London 1969)

RWE: The Royalist War Effort 1642-46, Ronald Hutton (London 1999)

SA: Scots Armies of the English Civil Wars, Stuart Reid (Osprey 1999)

SCWI: Sussex in the Great Civil War and the Interregnum, Charles Thomas-Stanford (London 1910)

SGCW: Sieges of the Great Civil War, P. Young and W. Emberton (London 1978)

SOB: Sieges of Bradford, David W. Fell

SON: The Siege of Newcastle Upon Tyne

TCG: The Cromwellian Gazetteer, Peter Gaunt (Stroud 1987)

TGCW: The Great Civil War, A.H. Burne and P. Young (London 1958)

TCK: The Confederation of Kilkenny, C.P. Meehan (Dublin 1846)

TCW: The Civil Wars, a military history of England, Scotland & Ireland 1638-60, Kenyon and Ohlmeyer (eds) (Oxford 1998)

TSR: The Scottish Revolution 1637-44, David Stevenson (Newton Abbott 1973)

TKW: The King's War 1641-47, C.V. Wedgwood (London 1958)

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