First Newbury: Order of Battle

The first battle of Newbury was fought on 20 September 1643. The Earl of Essex had marched his army and a brigade of London Trained Bands to Gloucester, which was besieged by the King's Oxford army. Having lifted the siege, Essex marched back towards London. The King's army marched in pursuit and intercepted the Parliamentarians at Newbury in Berkshire. With the route back to London blocked by the Royalists, Essex was forced to fight a battle he had hoped to avoid. Neither side gained a clear victory but the Royalists ran short of gunpowder and were forced to withdraw, allowing the Parliamentarians to complete their march to London.

The Parliamentarian Army

Lord-General: Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex
Sergeant-Major-General of Foot: Philip Skippon
Cavalry commanders: Sir Philip Stapleton, Colonel John Middleton
General of the Ordnance: Sir John Merrick

Foot: 8,000
Horse: 6,000
Dragoons: 150
Artillery: about twenty light artillery pieces and drakes, and at least two demi-culverins (Essex's heaviest artillery had been left at Gloucester)


Sergeant-Major-General Philip Skippon's Brigade

Sergeant-Major-General Skippon's regiment
Sir William Brooke's regiment
Sir Henry Bulstrode's regiment

Lord Robarte's Brigade

Lord Robarte's regiment
Sir William Constable's regiment
Colonel Francis Martin's regiment

Colonel James Holborne's Brigade

Colonel James Holborne's regiment
Colonlel Francis Thompson's regiment
Colonel George Langham's regiment

The City Brigade: Sergeant-Major-General Randall Mainwaring

Red Regiment, London Trained Bands
Blue Regiment, London Trained Bands
Red Auxiliaries, City of London
Blue Auxiliaries, City of London
Orange Auxiliaries, City of London
Sergeant-Major-General Mainwaring's regiment

Independent Regiments

Earl of Essex's regiment of foot
Sir WIlliam Springate's regiment


Sir Philip Stapleton's Brigade (right wing)

Earl of Essex's lifeguard
Earl of Essex's regiment of horse
Colonel John Dalbier's regiment
Sir James Ramsay's regiment
Colonel Arthur Goodwin's regiment
Colonel Edmund Harvey's regiment
Colonel Richard Norton's regiment
Scout Master General Sir Samuel Luke (three commanded troops)

Colonel John Middleton's Brigade (left wing)

Colonel John Middleton's regiment
Lord Grey of Groby's regiment
Colonel James Sheffield's regiment
Sir John Meldrum's regiment
Earl of Denbigh's regiment
Colonel Hans Behre's regiment


Captain Jeremiah Abercrombie's Company
Captain Cornelius Shibborne's Company

The Royalist Army

Commander-in-chief: King Charles the First
Lieutenant-General: Patrick Ruthven, Earl of Forth
General of the Horse: Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Sergeant-Major-General of Foot: Sir Jacob Astley
Master of the Ordnance: Henry, Lord Percy (nominal)
Lieutenant of the Ordnance: Sir John Heydon

Infantry: 6,000
Cavalry: 8,000
Artillery: two demi-cannons, two culverins, two 12-pounders, five 6-pounders, one saker, two mynions, four 3-pounders, two bases.


Oxford regiments that had marched with Prince Rupert to Bristol

John Belasyse's Tertia

Lord General's (Earl of Forth's) regiment
Colonel John Belasyse's regiment
Earl Rivers' regiment
Sir Jacob Astley's regiment
Colonel John Bolles' regiment
Colonel Henry Lunsford's regiment

Sir Gilbert Gerard's Tertia

Sir Gilbert Gerard's regiment
Sir Richard Herbert's regiment
Lord Molyneux's regiment
Sir Ralph Dutton's regiment
Colonel John Owen's regiment
Sir Edward Fitton's regiment
Sir Charles Lloyd's regiment
Sir Edward Stradling's regiment

Regiments from Oxford sent to the siege of Gloucester

Sir Nicholas Byron's Tertia (incomplete list)

The King's Lifeguard
Prince of Wales' regiment
Colonel Charles Gerard's regiment
Sir Lewis Dyve's regiment
Colonel Thomas Blagge's regiment
Colonel William Eure's regiment

Regiments from south Wales and Worcestershire

Sir WIlliam Vavsour's Tertia (incomplete list)

Lord Herbert's regiment
Sir William Vavasour's regiment
Sir Samuel Sandys' regiment


There is no record of which cavalry regiment served in each of the two brigades at first Newbury. Sir John Byron's and Sir Thomas Aston's regiments fought in the centre. Regiments known to have fought at Newbury are:

The King's Lifeguard (two troops)
Prince Rupert's Lifeguard (one troop)
Prince Rupert's regiment of horse
The Queen's regiment
Prince Maurice's regiment
The Earl of Carnarvon's regiment (Carnarvon killed)
Lord Wilmot's regiment
Sir Charles Lucas's regiment
Lord Andover's regiment
Sir Arthur Aston's regiment
Colonel Samuel Sandys' regiment
Colonel William Eure's regiment
Colonel Thomas Morgan's regiment (Morgan killed)
Lord Chandos' regiment
Earl of Northampton's regiment
Lord Digby's regiment
Sir John Byron's regiment
Sir Thomas Aston's regiment


Stuart Reid, All the King's Armies (Staplehurst 1998)

Keith Roberts, First Newbury 1643: the turning point (Osprey 2003)