General Monck marches from Scotland to reinstate Parliament — the Convention Parliament invites Charles II to return — the Declaration of Breda — Restoration of the Monarchy

January

1 General Monck sends his advance guard from Coldstream into England. Source: RCII
  Major-General Robert Lilburne surrenders York to Sir Thomas Fairfax. ODNB
2 On learning that Lambert has moved south, Monck crosses the River Tweed into England in pursuit with 5,000 foot and 2,000 horse. Lambert's demoralised army breaks up on the first stage of its march. ODNB
  Parliament issues instructions to the newly-appointed Council of State. HCJ
  Parliament issues an indemnity for life and estate to all Army officers involved in the recent coup on condition that they submit to Parliament's authority. The nine senior officers cashiered in October 1659, headed by Lambert and Disbrowe, ordered to repair to whichever of their residences is furthest from London. RCII
4 General Monck at Morpeth in Northumberland where he meets representatives of the City of London and confirms his intention to ensure the restoration of Parliament. RCII
  The Common Council of London appoints a committee to confer with MPs for the return of the Members excluded in 1648 and for new parliamentary elections. The Council orders a re-organisation of the London Trained Bands during which many Royalist officers are appointed. To the alarm of Parliament, orders are also given to strengthen the gates of the City and to set up chains and posts in the several precincts. RCII
  King Charles issues orders to the Great Trust to organise the counties of England into associations and to appoint local commissioners. RCE
5 Lieutenant-General Ludlow received by republican officers at Duncannon while officers in Dublin accuse him of neglecting his duty in Ireland and in Parliament, and of encouraging the usurpation of the army. ODNB
  Parliament votes that the MPs discharged at Pride's Purge in 1648 are permanently expelled and that new Members should be elected in their places. RCII
6 Parliament orders Monck to proceed to London with his army. HCJ
9 A body of musketeers sent to arrest a number of the excluded MPs at Arthur Annesley's house, where they are meeting to draw up a declaration complaining at the injustice of their exclusion. The MPs escape before the soldiers arrive. RCII
  Sir Henry Vane expelled from Parliament for having sided with the military junta. RCII
11 General Monck's army arrives at York. With no danger of further resistance from Lambert's forces, Monck sends two regiments back to Scotland under the command of Lieutenant-General Morgan. RCII
  The first of the lists of officers appointed by the Army commissioners presented to Parliament for approval. RCII
13 An address to Monck from the county of Leicestershire calls for the return of the excluded MPs and a free Parliament. During the next few weeks, several counties issue similar addresses. RCII
16 Monck marches from York having received Parliament's orders to come to London. RCII
17 Thomas Scot appointed secretary of state. RCII
  William Sydenham and Major Richard Salwey expelled from Parliament; Salwey imprisoned in the Tower. RCII
19 Articles of impeachment presented in Parliament against the commanders of the army and government commissioners in Ireland: Ludlow, Jones, Thomlinson, Corbet. New commissioners appointed.
23 Parliament issues a declaration affirming the establishment of the Commonwealth, without a King or House of Lords, to be governed by representatives of the people. RCII
26 A general indemnity offered to Lambert's army. Lambert himself ordered to retire to the house of Captain Baynes at Hornby in Yorkshire.
28 The gentry of Norfolk issue a declaration asserting that unless the excluded MPs were admitted to Parliament, the people of England could not be obliged to pay their taxes. RCII
  General Monck writes to Parliament from St Albans in Hertfordshire asking that all the troops in London should be dispersed to garrisons across the country. He assures Parliament that his own army will be sufficient to garrison London. RCII, HCJ
30 Parliament approves Monck's lists and orders the dispersal of the troops in London. RCII
 

February

1 Mutiny among soldiers at St James's, who refuse to leave London until their arrears of pay are settled. Source: RCII
2 Further mutinies break out among soldiers stationed at Somerset House and Salisbury Court. Parliament orders the payment of one month's arrears, after which the soldiers obey orders and leave London. RCII
  An apprentice riot breaks out at Leadenhall in support of the excluded MPs. The riot is suppressed by cavalry and around forty apprentices arrested, beaten up and imprisoned. RCII
3 General Monck's army arrives in London. RCII, DSP
4 Parliament resolves that its numbers should be made up to 400 members with constituencies distributed as they were in 1653. A committee appointed to supervise the re-arrangements. RCII
6 General Monck attends Parliament to receive the thanks of the House. He calls for moderation and urges new elections to fill the vacancies in Parliament. RCII
7 The Council of Officers in Dublin summons a Convention consisting of two representatives from each county and borough. RCII
  Parliament orders the arrest of a number of individuals who had presented addresses to Monck or to Parliament for the reinstatement of the excluded MPs. RCII
8 Householders and freemen address a petition to the Lord Mayor and Common Council of London urging that no taxes should be paid until a full Parliament has voted them. RCII
9 On the recommendation of the Council of State, Parliament takes steps to coerce obedience from the citizens of London: Monck is ordered to remove the defensive posts and chains from the streets and to dismantle the City gates and portcullises; eleven named citizens to be arrested; the Common Council to be dissolved. Despite the protests of his officers, Monck carries out Parliament's orders. RCII
  Parliament approves a petition presented by Praise-God Barbon and other godly citizens urging that all MPs and office holders should publicly denounce Charles Stuart and that anyone advocating the return of the King or the House of Lords should be adjudged guilty of treason. RCII
10 Monck hears the complaints of his officers and leading citizens regarding the actions in the City. Sir Thomas Clarges, Ashley Cooper and others persuade Monck to demand the re-admission of the secluded MPs and a free election. RCII
11 Monck sends a letter to Parliament insisting that writs for new elections be issued within a week. He apologises for his actions in dismantling the City gates and sends his soldiers to occupy the City. RCII
  Sir Arthur Hesilrige leads moves in Parliament to have Monck replaced as commander-in-chief by Charles Fleetwood. Supreme military power to be vested in a five-man commission, of which Monck is a member but not one of the quorum. TR
  "The Roasting of the Rump": a night of wild popular rejoicing in London and the provinces at news that the Rump Parliament is coming to an end. DSP
13 Parliament orders a month's pay for the soldiers in and around London, but only one-third of the necessary funds is available at the Treasury. HCJ, RCII
  Parliament orders Colonel Lambert to appear before the Council of State; the Sergeant-at-Arms ordered to convey Sir Henry Vane from London; members of the old Committee of Safety ordered to appear before Parliament. HCJ
14-18 Monck arranges a series of meetings between representatives of Parliament and the secluded MPs in the hope of reaching agreement between them. RCII
15 After the Irish Convention issues a declaration in favour of the secluded MPs, Sir Hardress Waller seizes Dublin Castle. RCII
18 Sir Hardress Waller surrenders Dublin Castle to Sir Charles Coote. Waller is imprisoned while Coote purges the army in Ireland of officers and men likely to oppose the reinstatement of the Long Parliament. RCII
  Lord Broghill and the officers in Munster issue a declaration denouncing Pride's Purge and supporting the Long Parliament. RCII
  Parliament passes an act disqualifying various classes of people from voting or standing for election. AOI
  Two ringleaders of the mutiny among the troops in London in early February hanged at Charing Cross; seven others are flogged. RCII
21 Under General Monck's protection, seventy-three surviving MPs purged in 1648 are re-admitted to Parliament and the Long Parliament is restored. Various parliamentary resolutions passed since December 1648 are rescinded to allow Presbyterian MPs excluded by the army to return to Parliament. RCII
  Further widespread rejoicing in London and the provinces at the reinstatement of the Long Parliament. RCII
23 Parliament holds elections for a new Council of State of thirty-one members. TR
25 Parliament passes an act constituting the new Council of State. AOI
  General Monck appointed captain-general and commander-in-chief of all the land Forces in England, Scotland and Ireland. John Lawson confirmed as vice-admiral of the navy. RCII
26 Monck sends Colonel Ingoldsby to take command of Colonel Rich's regiment in East Anglia after Rich is suspected of inciting a mutiny against Monck and the restored Long Parliament. RCII
27 Re-appointment of John Thurloe as joint Secretary of State with John Thompson. ODNB
28 A day of thanksgiving held in London for the return of the Long Parliament. RCII
 

March

  (March) George Morley (later Bishop of WInchester) arrives in England to win moderate Presbyterians over to the Royalist cause. Source: RCII
2 General Monck and Edward Montagu appointed joint generals-at-sea to command the fleet; Montagu ordered to take up his command immediately. RCII
  All references to the Commonwealth removed from Parliament's instructions to the committee on revenue. TR
3 Parliament orders the release of the Royalist peers Crawford-Lindsey, Sinclair and Lauderdale, imprisoned since 1651. TR, HCJ
  Royalist gentry of Worcestershire issue a tract in favour of monarchy, in which they declare that they have no thought of revenge and wish only for peace and the unity of the nation. Similar declarations begin to be issued by Royalists in other regions. RCII
5 John Lambert appears before the Council of State. Unable to pay the impossibly high security of £20,000 demanded of him, he is sent to the Tower of London. ODNB
  Parliament passes an act adopting the Confession of Faith presented by the Westminster Assembly in 1646 as the public confession of faith for the Church of England. The Solemn League and Covenant is ordered to be published and read once a year in every church and also to be set up in the Parliament House. RCII
  Edward Stephens MP makes a speech in favour of monarchy and is applauded in the House of Commons. TR
6 Major-General Robert Overton replaced as governor of Hull and ordered to London. RCII
7 An assembly of army officers headed by Colonel Okey drafts a remonstrance protesting at the new Militia Act being prepared by Parliament and requiring MPs to declare against King and Lords. RCI, TRI
  Sir Arthur Hesilrige and Colonel Nathaniel Rich appear before Parliament to answer charges brought against them. HCJ
8 A bill introduced in Parliament for calling elections for a new Parliament to meet on 25 April. RCII
  General Monck calls a conference of officers and MPs to address the soldiers' concerns regarding indemnity for past actions, secure possession of lands obtained since the civil wars and arrears of pay in the event of a change of régime. RCII
9 General Monck orders all officers to return to their commands, thus preventing any further assemblies or councils. RCII
12 Parliament passes a new Militia Act re-organising the militia in England and Wales and in London. AOI
  Parliament orders the enforcement of laws against Roman Catholics. AOI
13 A proposal by Henry Marten and Thomas Scot to debar from voting anyone who has fought for the Royalists is defeated by ninety-three votes to fifty-six. RCII
14 Parliament revives the ordinance of 29 August 1648 that divides the counties of England and Wales into Presbyterian classes, but all existing ministers are allowed to keep their livings and separatists are allowed to meet. RCII
16 Final dissolution of the Long Parliament after MPs pass the Act of Dissolution and authorise free elections. The Council of State to exercise executive authority until the new Parliament assembles. RCII
17 General Monck holds a secret meeting with the King's representative Sir John Grenville at St James's Palace during which Monck pledges his allegiance to the King. RCII, RCE
19 Proclamations issued ordering all cavaliers and disbanded officers to leave London, but these are generally disregarded amid widespread rumours of the King's imminent return. RCII
23 Montagu joins the fleet accompanied by his secretary Samuel Pepys, where he is welcomed by Vice-Admiral Lawson. Montagu proceeds to report on disaffected officers to the Council of State. TR, DSP
  Monck orders all officers to sign a declaration that they will obey the orders of their superiors, the Council of State and the new Parliament, and that they will hold no meetings for drafting declarations concerning matters of state. A number of officers in London are cashiered for refusing to sign. RCII
  Publication of News from Brussels by Marchamont Nedham, an anti-monarchical tract purporting to be written by a cavalier anticipating the revenge that the King would seek if and when he was restored. ODNB
24 William Penn re-appointed as a commissioner of the admiralty. ODNB
  The Council of State offers a reward for information leading to the arrest of republican agitators active in the army; General Monck appoints Colonel Knight to tour garrisons and search them out. TR
25 A second meeting between Monck and Grenville, in which Monck offers verbal advice to be conveyed to Charles. RCII
26 Sir John Grenville returns to King Charles with Monck's message of support. RCII
  William Prynne publishes Seasonable and Healing Instructions, calling for a conditional restoration of the monarchy. RCII
 

April

  (First week of April) John Milton publishes an anti-monarchical tract: The Ready and Easy Way to Establishing a Free Commonwealth. Source: ODNB
4 Charles II leaves Brussels in the Spanish Netherlands for Breda in Holland. On the way, he gives Sir John Grenville the manifesto later known as the Declaration of Breda, and dispatches for Monck, Montagu, the Speakers of the Lords and Commons and the Lord Mayor of London. RCII
  (Second week of April) John Milton publishes his last republican pamphlet: Brief Notes upon a Late Sermon in which he advocates an elected monarchy as preferable to the restoration of the Stuart dynasty. ODNB
9 The Council of State dismisses the republican Marchamont Nedham from editorship of official government newsbooks. ODNB
10 John Lambert escapes from the Tower and attempts to rally forces against the Restoration. RCII
11 The declaration of loyalty signed by the officers of regiments stationed in London and Yorkshire presented to General Monck, who then orders it to be signed by all other regiments in England and Scotland. RCII
18 Monck sends Colonel Ingoldsby in pursuit of Lambert. ODNB
22 Lambert and his followers surprised at Daventry by Colonel Ingoldsby. Lambert taken prisoner. RCII
23 Lambert forced to stand under the gallows at Tyburn then returned to the Tower of London. RCII
25 The Convention Parliament assembles. RCII
28 The King's representative Sir John Grenville presents the Declaration of Breda to the Council of State. RCII
 

May

1 Sir John Grenville presents the Declaration of Breda and letters from the King to both Houses of Parliament. The Houses answer with an acknowledgement that the government of the nation is, and ought to be, by King, Lords and Commons. Source: RCII
  The House of Commons grants a subsidy of £50,000 to King Charles. HCJ
  General Monck summons all the officers in and around London and communicates to them the Declaration and the King's letter. A council is formed to draft the officers' reply. RCII
  Popular rejoicing throughout the nation at the prospect of the King's return. May Day celebrations held for the first time since the beginning of the civil wars. RCII
2 The Council of Officers presents their loyal address to General Monck and their acceptance of the Restoration. RCII
  The King's letter to the Lord Mayor and aldermen of the City of London read by the Common Council, which then seeks and obtains Parliament's permission to send a formal reply. The arms of the Commonwealth ordered to be taken down and replaced by the royal arms. RCII
3 Samuel Pepys reads the King's letter to Montagu and the Declaration of Breda to officers and men in the fleet, which declares for the King. DSP
  The Common Council of London votes £10,000 to the King, £2,000 to the Dukes of York and Gloucester and £300 to buy rings for Mordaunt and Grenville, the bearers of the King's letter. The Council also agrees to co-operate in raising a loan of £100,000 at the request of Parliament, half for the King and half to pay the army. RCII
5 Parliament declares that all proceedings involving the Great Seal of England shall henceforward be carried out in the King's name. RCII
7 The army in Ireland sends a loyal address to General Monck and declares its support for the Declaration of Breda. RCII
  Parliament directs clergymen throughout the Three Kingdoms to pray for King Charles. RCII
8 King Charles proclaimed in London. RCII
  The Convention Parliament declares Charles II to have been King since 30 January 1649. The arms of the Commonwealth taken down from above the Speaker's Chair and replaced by those of the King. HCJ
9 First reading in the House of Commons of the Bill of General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion. HCJ
10 Parliament orders that the Scottish colours captured at the battles of Dunbar and Worcester be taken down from Westminster Hall. HCJ
11 Montagu's fleet of thirty-seven warships sails from the Downs to convey the King to England. Representatives of both Houses set out for Dover to receive him. DSP, RCII
12 Second reading of the Bill of General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion. A journal of the proceedings of the High Court of Justice is read and a number of the commissioners present in Parliament offer their apologies and explanations for their actions. HCJ, RCII
  Sir John Lenthall proposes that everyone who has borne arms against the King should be excepted from pardon, for which he is rebuked by the House. RCII
14 Parliament orders the arrest of all surviving regicides. HCJ
  King Charles II proclaimed in Edinburgh and Dublin. RCII
  Montagu's fleet arrives off Scheveningen. RCII
15 Parliament resolves that retrospective acts of attainder shall he passed on Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw and Thomas Pride (all deceased). The arrest of John Thurloe is ordered. HCJ
  King Charles and his entourage arrive at The Hague. CII
16 The King receives a delegation from both Houses of Parliament. DSP
23 King Charles and his entourage board the fleet and set sail for England. The King and Duke of York re-name several warships, including Montagu's flagship the Naseby, which is re-named the Royal Charles. DSP
25 King Charles II lands at Dover where a huge multitude is assembled to greet him. The King proceeds to Canterbury. DSP
26 At Canterbury, the King invests the Order of the Garter on General Monck. DSP
27 Montagu receives the Order of the Garter aboard his flagship from Sir Edward Walker, Garter King-at-Arms. DSP
  At Canterbury, the King holds the first meeting of his privy council on English soil. The council consists of the Dukes of York and Gloucester, the Marquis of Ormond, Sir John Culpeper, Sir Edward Hyde and Sir Edward Nicholas. Four new members are sworn in: General Monck, the Earl of Southampton, Sir William Morice, Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper. RCII
28 Dissolution of the Council of State. COE
29 On his 30th birthday, King Charles II makes a triumphal entry into London. RCII
31 The House of Commons appoints a committee to draw up a proclamation ordering the regicides to surrender themselves. HCJ
 

June

12 First reading of a bill to introduce a poll tax to finance the disbanding of the army. Source: TR
18 King Charles consults the Earl of Lauderdale and other Scottish nobles and gentry in London on the form of an interim government for Scotland. CII
21 King Charles meets commissioners of the Irish Convention who request the re-introduction of episcopacy in Ireland, with toleration of moderate Protestant dissenters. The King and his advisers immediately agree; archbishops and bishops are named within two days, with John Bramhall appointed Primate of All Ireland. CII
25 General Monck appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, though deputies and commissioners are appointed for the day-to-day government. CII
 

July

  (Early July) A deputation of Ulster ministers sent to remind Charles of his obligations under the Solemn League and Covenant is coldly received. CII
7 General Monck created Earl of Torrington and Duke of Albemarle. He is granted substantial lands and an annual pension. ODNB
8 The Marquis of Argyll appears at Whitehall. The King orders his arrest for treason. ODNB
25 Charles appoints Lord Robartes as Monck's Lord Deputy in Ireland. Sir Charles Coote and Lord Broghill appointed presidents of Connacht and Munster respectively. A committee of the King's privy council appointed to advise on Irish affairs. CII
30 The King orders the seizure of former Crown and Church lands in the County Palatine of Durham. CII
 

August

3 Charles II grants General Monck granted a commission as Captain-General of the British army for life. Source: RHCA1
10 The King signs a letter drafted by Lauderdale apparently promising to maintain the Scottish Kirk and forbidding all religious meetings outside the Kirk. CII
23 The Committee of Estates re-assembles as an interim government for Scotland. CII
27 Copies of John Milton's books burned by the public hangman at the Old Bailey. ODNB
29 The Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity and Oblivion given the royal assent, with 33 names exempted from pardon. TR
30 General Monck's proposals for the disbandment of the armies in England and Scotland presented in Parliament. RHCA1
 

September

  (September) William Juxon appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Source: TR
3 The Duke of York secretly marries Anne Hyde, daughter of Sir Edward Hyde. Their son is born on 22 October. ODNB
13 The Convention Parliament adjourns. HCJ
  The King's younger brother Henry, Duke of Gloucester, dies of smallpox. TR
 

October

7 The King appoints a commission of peers and MPs to arbitrate disputes in the disposal of former Crown and Church lands. Source: TR
9-19 The trials of the regicides held in custody take place at Hick's Hall and the Old Bailey. TCA
13 Execution of Thomas Harrison at Charing Cross. ODNB
15 Execution of John Carew at Charing Cross. ODNB
16 Executions of John Cook and Hugh Peter at Charing Cross. ODNB
17 Executions of Thomas Scot, Gregory Clement, Adrian Scrope and John Jones at Charing Cross. ODNB
19 Execution of Francis Hacker and Daniel Axtell at Tyburn. ODNB
25 The Worcester House Declaration issued: an interim Church settlement that partly reconciles Episcopalians and Presbyterians. TR
  (End of October) Henrietta Maria returns to England in response to the scandal over the Duke of York's marriage to Anne Hyde. ODNB
 

November

6 The Convention Parliament convenes for its second session. Source: HCJ
  Parliament appoints a committee to finalise the poll tax for financing the disbandment of the army. HCJ
7 A bill for the attainder of the fugitive regicides introduced into Parliament, along with the posthumous attainders of Cromwell, Ireton, Bradshaw and Pride. HCJ
27 Parliament resolves to grant the King an annual revenue of £1,200,000. HCJ
30 A royal declaration disowns all former dealings with the Confederates in Ireland and confirms the titles of confiscated Irish land in general. However, former Church lands are to be returned, as are those of Protestant Royalists and Catholics not implicated in the 1641 uprising. CII
 

December

7 The Marquis of Argyll conveyed by sea to Edinburgh to await trial. Source: ODNB
19 The King appoints an Irish Privy Council. CII
29 King Charles dissolves the Convention Parliament. HCJ
 

Sources:

AOI: Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum C.H. Firth and R.S. Raitt (eds), 1911

CII: Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Ronald Hutton (Oxford 1989)

COE: Commonwealth of England, Council of State 1649-60 www.archontology.org

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography

DSP: The Diary of Samuel Pepys www.pepysdiary.com

HCJ: House of Commons Journal www.british-history.ac.uk

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

TCA: The Trial of Colonel Axtell www.axtellfamily.org

TR: The Restoration, Ronald Hutton (Oxford 1985)

RCE: Royalist Conspiracy in England 1649-60, David Underdown (New Haven 1960)

RCII: The Restoration of Charles II 1658-60, Godfrey Davies (San Marino 1955)

RHCA1: The Regimental History of Cromwell's Army vol. i, C.H. Firth & Godfrey Davies (Oxford 1940)

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