Charles II and the Scots invade England — the battle of Worcester — Charles escapes to France — the Navigation Act — death of Ireton


  (January) Major-General Monck leads an attack on Burntisland in Fife but is driven back by strong resistance. Source: RCRS
  (January) Edmund Ludlow arrives in Ireland to serve as lieutenant-general to Ireton. He is accompanied by three parliamentary commissioners who are to organise the civil government of Ireland. HCP2
  (January) At Toulon, Prince Rupert conducts an enquiry into the loss of his ships at Cartagena. Captain Burley dismissed from the Royalist fleet over the loss of the Henry; Captain Allin condemned for cowardice, but escapes to Jersey. PRA
1 Charles II crowned King of Scots at Scone. CII
7 The Commission of the Kirk warns ministers not to criticise the relaxing of religious qualifications to serve in the Scottish army, but already the moderate "Resolutioners" are under attack by the hardline "Protesters" and Remonstrants. RCRS
12 Major-General John Middleton re-admitted to the Kirk after undergoing a public penance in sackcloth; Colonel Strachan excommunicated. HCP1
17 The Marquis of Argyll leaves King Charles' court and withdraws to the Highlands. HCP1
21 Captain John Lawson joins Vice-Admiral William Penn's squadron in the Azores. ODNB


  (Early February) English forces advance towards Stirling but are driven back by bad weather conditions. Source: ATKA
  (February) Oliver Cromwell falls ill and suffers bouts of sickness through to July. DNB
11 Major-General George Monck besieges Tantallon Castle. TCG
13 General-at-Sea Robert Blake awarded £1,000 and receives the thanks of Parliament for breaking up Prince Rupert's piratical fleet. HCP1
14 Oliver St John and Walter Strickland instructed to go the Holland to negotiate an alliance with the States General. HCP1
18 A Parliamentary committee recommends that all cathedrals in England should be demolished or sold. HCP2
  The Assembly of Barbados refuses to submit to Parliament. HCP2
23 Tantallon Castle surrenders to Monck. TCG
24 Charles II's representatives Lord Cottington and Sir Edward Hyde ordered to leave Madrid by King Philip IV, who wants to remain on friendly terms with the Commonwealth. HCP1
26 Stephen de Henin, ambassador of Charles, Duke of Lorraine, arrives to negotiate with the Confederates. Viscount Taafe meets the Duke's representatives in Brussels around the same time. TCW, CIR


9 Arrest of John Birkenhead and other conspirators at Greenock; capture of correspondence regarding plans for widespread Royalist insurrections in England. Source: HCP2
13 A sermon before Parliament at Westminster by the radical preacher John Simpson causes uproar when Simpson champions lay preaching by soldiers and criticises the professional clergy. ODNB
  The Scottish Parliament meets at Perth and resolves to ask the Kirk whether it is unlawful or sinful for Royalists and Engagers to be admitted to the Committee of Estates. A motion to abolish the Committee is rejected by the lairds and burgesses. RCRS
14 Cardinal Mazarin's agent in London dismissed. The Council of State refuses to negotiate until France officially recognises the Commonwealth. HCP1
17 Commonwealth ambassadors harangued by Royalist exiles on their arrival at The Hague. HCP1
22 The Commission of the Kirk refuses to give a direct answer regarding membership of the Committee of Estates but declares that Royalists may be admitted to any committee established to manage the army. RCRS
25 Opening of negotiations for an alliance between the Commonwealth and the States-General of Holland. HCP1
26 The Council of State orders Major-General Disbrowe to hold hostage some of Sir John Grenville's relations in Cornwall until Grenville had released merchants taken prisoner by his privateers on the the Scilly Isles. DNB
29 Arrest of Royalist conspirator Tom Coke. In exchange for his life, Coke reveals full details of Royalist plans and names the leaders of the conspiracy in England. Widespread arrests follow. HCP2
  Vice-Admiral William Penn's squadron leaves Cadiz and sails into the Mediterranean in pursuit of Prince Rupert and in search of prizes. ODNB, CWS
30 The Dutch admiral Maarten Tromp arrives off the Scilly Isles with a squadron of thirteen ships to secure the release of Dutch ships, crews and cargoes taken by Royalist privateers. CWS
  (Late March) Monck and Deane collaborate on an amphibious operation to besiege and capture Blackness Castle on the south side of the Firth of Forth. TCG


1 General-at-Sea Robert Blake ordered to prepare for an attack on the Scilly Isles. Sir George Ayscue's squadron diverted from the expedition to Barbados to assist. Source: HCP1
  Sir John Grenville releases twelve Dutch prisoners held on the Scillies to Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp. CWS
2 Grenville releases a further twenty-two Dutch prisoners but is unable to comply with Tromp's demand for the return of captured ships because they have already been sold. Grenville's hostile attitude antagonizes Tromp who offers to co-operate with Blake in the reduction of the Scillies. CWS
12 Blake's squadron sails from Plymouth for the Isles of Scilly. CWS
14 A Scottish force from Stirling raids the English position at Linlithgow. Scottish cavalry commanded by Colonel Montgomery probes into the south-west forcing the English to abandon Hamilton and Dumfries. ATKA, RCRS
15 First publication of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan. HCP2
  The squadrons of Blake and Tromp make a combined show of strength off Hugh Town on St Mary's in an attempt to intimidate Sir John Grenville. CWS
17 The Committee of Estates prorogues the meeting of the Scottish Parliament over fears that it would repeal the Act of Classes. RCRS
  Parties of soldiers from Blake's squadron land with difficulty on small islands off Tresco. CWS
18 Parliament passes an Act allowing the impressment of up to 10,000 men for service in Ireland. AOI
  Blake's troops capture the islands of Tresco and Bryher; Sir John Grenville withdraws to St Mary's. CWS
23 Irish agents Sir Nicholas Plunkett and Geoffrey Browne commissioned to negotiate for aid from the Duke of Lorraine. HCP2
25 Blake summons Sir John Grenville to surrender. CWS
27 Grenville sends an envoy to negotiate terms with Blake. CWS
30 Prince Rupert completes the refitting of his ships at Toulon. MPRC


1 Henry Ireton issues an order forbidding further marriages between English soldiers and Irish girls. Source: HCP2
2 Arrest of several Presbyterian ministers suspected of plotting to aid the Royalists in England. Christopher Love selected for trial before the High Court of Justice. HCP2
  Commonwealth and Royalist commissioners meet on the island of Samson to negotiate a treaty for the surrender of the Scilly Isles but are unable to reach an agreement. Blake orders the bombardment of Royalist positions on St Mary's. CWS
5 After hearing false rumours spread by Prince Rupert that he intends to sail for the eastern Meditterranean, Vice-Admiral Penn sails from Majorca to Sardinia. PRA
6 Richard Deane appointed major-general of the Commonwealth army in Scotland; George Monck appointed lieutenant-general of the ordnance. With Cromwell still ill, John Lambert is effectively in command. CG
7 Prince Rupert's squadron of five ships sails from Toulon for the Atlantic. MPRC
10 Ireton calls a council of war at Clonmel to discuss the continuation of the campaign against Connacht and Limerick. HCP2
16 The Portuguese ambassador in London dismissed after Portugal rejects Commonwealth demands for compensation over their sheltering of Prince Rupert and toleration of his piracy. HCP1
23 Sir John Grenville agrees to surrender the Scilly Isles after General-at-Sea Robert Blake offers generous term. HCP1
  The Scottish Parliament meets at Perth. TCW


  (Early June) A new Scots-Royalist army begins to muster at Stirling. Source: HCP2
  (Early June) Sir Charles Coote marches into Connacht from the north and advances towards Athlone and Portumna. CIR
1 General Ireton forces a passage over the River Shannon at O'Briensbridge, enabling him to establish forces on both sides of the river. HCP2
3 Commonwealth forces occupy the Scilly Isles. CWS
4 The Scottish Parliament repeals the Act of Classes, fully re-admitting Engagers and Royalists to civil and military appointments. The western Remonstrance denounced; those who refuse to renounce it to be prosecuted for sedition. TCW, RCRS
8 Prince Rupert's squadron sails for Madeira with two prizes taken in the Atlantic. PRA
9 George Fisher, Commonwealth envoy in Madrid, recalled in protest at Spain's reluctance to prosecute the murderers of Anthony Ascham. HCP1
13 Colonel Edward Sexby court-martialled and cashiered at Edinburgh for a number of irregularities, including the execution of a soldier contrary to justice and the withholding of pay from troops under his command. RHCA2
14 The siege of Limerick reinstated. HCP2
18 English ambassadors St John and Strickland leave the Hague after the failure of negotiations for an alliance with the States General. HCP1
  Lord Dillon surrenders Athlone to Sir Charles Coote, who advances to Portumna. CIR
20 Opening of the trial of Presbyterian minister Christopher Love, accused of plotting against the Commonwealth. HCP2
23 An amphibious assault on Limerick repulsed with heavy losses. Ireton abandons attempts to take the town by storm and prepares to blockade it into submission. HCP2, CIR
25 Cromwell occupies his old position at Braid Hill near Edinburgh. HCP2
  At the instigation of Thomas Harrison, Lord Howard of Escrick is expelled from Parliament, fined and committed to the Tower for taking bribes from Royalists hoping to receive a reduction in the fines imposed upon them. HCP2
28 General Leslie deploys the Scottish army in an easily defensible position at Torwood in the hills south of Stirling. ATKA
30 Cromwell marches towards Stirling, hoping to bring Leslie to battle. HCP2
  Ireton's proposals for the surrender of Limerick rejected. HCP2
  (Late June) The garrison at Portumna surrenders to Sir Charles Coote, who advances on Galway. CIR
  (Late June) The Ranter Abiezer Coppe released from Newgate gaol, having written a recantation of his blasphemous opinions. ODNB


  (Early July) Scottish outposts at Falkirk withdraw as the Commonwealth army advances. Source: HCP2
1 Prince Rupert's squadron sails from Madeira. PRA
5 Presbyterian conspirator Christopher Love sentenced to death. HCP2
7 In consultation with his captains, Prince Rupert decides to station his squadron in the Azores. PRA
12 The battle of Knocknaclashy: Lord Broghill routs Viscount Muskerry's Irish relief force marching for Limerick. CIR, HACD
  Confederate agents Plunkett and Browne sign a treaty with the Duke of Lorraine for his intervention in the war against England, but grant greater concessions to the Duke than either King Charles or the Marquis of Clanricarde would consider acceptable. CIR, ODNB
16 Parliament passes the Confiscation Act: the estates of seventy named Royalists to be sold for the benefit of the Commonwealth. HCP2
  The General Assembly of the Kirk meets at St Andrews with bitter arguments between the pro-Royalist Resolutioners and hardline Protesters. RCRS
17 Cromwell sends Colonel Overton with a small force across the Firth of Forth to North Queensferry, intending to disrupt Scottish supply lines from Fife. CG, RCRS
19 Major-General Lambert reinforces the Commonwealth troops in Fife. HCP2
20 Battle of Inverkeithing: Lambert defeats Major-General Holbourne and Sir John Browne, sent by Leslie to drive the English out of Fife. HCP2, TCW
22 Presbyterian ministers appeal to Cromwell to intercede for Christopher Love. HCP2
23 Cromwell summons Major-General Harrison to a conference at Linlithgow. Harrison ordered to call up reinforcements from Nottingham to watch the borders. HCP2
24 Lieutenant-General Monck captures Inchgarvie in Fife. HCP2, ODNB
25 Prince Rupert's squadron arrives at the island of St Michael in the Azores. MPRC, PRA
  Vice-Admiral William Penn arrives at Malta where he learns that Rupert has tricked him and left the Mediterranean. RN2
26 Cromwell reinforces his bridgehead in Fife. ATKA
29 Monck captures Burntisland, securing Cromwell's base of operations in Fife. HCP2, ODNB
31 Charles II and the Scottish army marches from Stirling towards the English border. The Marquis of Argyll and the Earl of Loudoun refuse to support the invasion and withdraw. RCRS, HCP2


1 Oliver Cromwell advances on Perth, deliberately leaving the road to England open. HCP2
2 Perth surrenders to Cromwell's summons. TCW
4 Cromwell returns across the Forth to Leith. Lieutenant-General George Monck ordered to reduce remaining Scottish strongholds. HCP2
5 Cromwell sends Major-General John Lambert with an advance guard of 3,000 horse to pursue the Royalist army. CG
  Major-General Thomas Harrison musters his forces at Newcastle. HCP2
  General-at-Sea Sir George Ayscue sets sail for Barbados. ODNB
  The Council of State proposes the Navigation Act against Dutch trade competition. HCP2
6 Charles II leads the Scots-Royalist army across the border near Carlisle. Charles proclaimed sovereign of England, offering free pardon to all those who would now join him. ATKA, CII
  Monck arrives at Stirling. The town surrenders but the castle continues to resist. HCP2
7 Cromwell sets off in pursuit of Charles with his main force. HCP2
11 Bombardment of Stirling Castle begins. CW
12 Parliament passes an Act directing the trial by court martial of anyone in correspondence with Charles Stuart or anyone aiding his cause. AOI
13 Harrison joins forces with Lambert at Preston. HCP2
14 Stirling Castle surrenders to Monck after a mutiny against the governor Colonel Cunningham. Monck marches for Dundee. CW
15 The Earl of Derby lands in Lancashire from the Isle of Man with a force of 250 foot and 50 horse. LCW
16 Skirmish at Warrington Bridge. The combined force of Lambert and Harrison withdraws before the Royalist advance. HCP2
  Parliament finally rejects appeals for a reprieve for Christopher Love. TRP
17 The Earl of Derby joins Charles and the Scots. HCP2
18 The Earl of Derby and Edward Massie at Warrington in an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the Lancashire Presbyterians to support Charles. HCP2
20 The Committee of Estates at Dundee calls upon all loyal Scots to rise up against the English invaders. RCRS
22 Charles and the Scots-Royalist army occupies Worcester. HCP2
  Execution on Tower Hill of the Presbyterian conspirator Christopher Love. HCP2
23 Charles issues an order to all Englishmen to attend him at Worcester for the defence of the throne and the liberties of the country. HCP2
24 Cromwell, Lambert and Harrison join forces at Warwick. CG, HCP2
  The Committee of Estates flees from Dundee to Kirriemuir in Angus. RCRS
25 The Earl of Derby and the Lancashire Royalists routed at Wigan by a regiment of horse under Colonel Robert Lilburne. Sir Thomas Tyldesley killed in the action. ATKA
26 Monck summons Dundee, but Sir Robert Lumsden is defiant. ODNB
27 Cromwell at Evesham, fifteen miles from Charles' army at Worcester. HCP2
28 Lambert captures Upton Bridge on the outskirts of Worcester, allowing Cromwell's army to operate on both banks of the River Severn. ATKA
  Monck sends Colonel Alured to raid Alyth near Dundee where he arrests most of the remaining members of the Committee of Estates. HCP2
30 Bombardment of Dundee begins. CW
  Surrender of St Andrews to English troops. TCW
31 The Earl of Balcarres meets Royalist members of the Committee of Estates at Aberdeen where they attempt to consolidate Scottish resistance to the invaders. RCRS


1 Monck storms Dundee; his troops massacre up to 800 soldiers of the garrison and plunder the town. Source: HCP2
3 Battle of Worcester: Cromwell defeats Charles II and the Scots. The last major battle of the civil wars. HCP2
4 Charles escapes to White Ladies Priory near Boscobel in Staffordshire. ECSW
5 Lieutenant-General Monck falls seriously ill. ODNB
  The Earl of Loudoun, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, summons all remaining members of the Committee of Estates to meet at Killin in Perthshire. Lord Balcarres refuses to attend, suggesting that Loudoun should join him in the north-east instead. RCRS
6 Unable to escape into Wales, Charles returns to Boscobel House where he hides from Roundhead soldiers in an oak tree. ECSW
7 Aberdeen occupied by English troops. TCW
8 Charles joins Lord Wilmot at Moseley Hall. ECSW
9 Leslie, Middleton and other Scottish officers captured by Colonel Birch at Blackstone Edge in Yorkshire. ODNB
  Vice-Admiral Penn's squadron at Gibraltar expecting to intercept Prince Rupert's return to the Mediterranean. ODNB
10 Parliament offers £1,000 reward for the capture of Charles Stuart. HCJ
  Charles travels towards Bristol disguised as the servant of Jane Lane. ECSW
  In response to Loudoun's summons, a skeleton Committee of Estates meets at Killin, comprising seven nobles (including Argyll), three lairds and three burgesses. RCRS
  Parliament resolves to reduce the size of the army, and hence the burden of taxation, by disbanding 4,000 horse and dragoons. TRP
11 Parliament selects for trial nine of Charles' leading supporters. HCP2
12-15 Charles and his companions at Abbotsleigh near Bristol where unsuccessful attempts are made to secure a ship from Bristol to the Continent. ECSW
16 Oliver Cromwell receives the formal thanks of Parliament for his victories over the Scots and Royalists. HCP2
  Parliament resumes discussion of parliamentary elections and the proposed act of oblivion. TRP
17 Charles arrives at Colonel Wyndham's house at Trent near Sherborne in Dorset. ECSW
20 The Council of State commissions an expedition against Jersey, with Colonel James Heane commanding the land forces and General-at-Sea Robert Blake commanding the fleet. DNB, RHCA2
22 Charles and Wilmot fail in an attempt to escape by sea from Charmouth in Dorset. ECSW
24 Charles returns to Trent House while his friends try to find him a safe passage to France. ECSW
25 The Committee of Estates meets at Dumbarton but adjourns itself at the approach of English forces. RCRS
  Parliament appoints a committee to draft a bill for the calling of a new representative. TRP
30 Prince Rupert's flagship the Constant Reformation wrecked in a storm off the Azores; Rupert narrowly escapes with his life. MPRC


  (Early October) Parliament resolves to disband five regiments and thirty individual companies of foot. Source: TRP
1 Court martial of the Earl of Derby and two of his officers at Chester on charges of aiding Charles Stuart's invasion. HCP2
6 Charles leaves Trent House for Mrs Hyde's house at Heale between Salisbury and Amesbury. ECSW
7 The Duke of Lorraine offers to intervene on behalf of the Irish Catholics if he is granted the title of Royal Protector of Ireland. HCP2
8 First reading in Parliament of the bill to elect a new representative. TRP
9 Parliament passes the first Navigation Act, introducing measures aimed at hampering Dutch trade. AOI
10 Second reading of the bill for a new representative. Parliament resolves to debate the bill in grand committee for two weeks but the debate continues into November owing to the reluctance of MPs to set a deadline for the dissolution of the present Parliament. TRP
11 The Earl of Derby appeals against his death sentence. His petition is supported by Cromwell but rejected by Parliament. HCP2
12 Charles and Wilmot at Thomas Symonds' house at Hambledon in Hampshire. ECSW
13 The Council of State issues provisional proposals for the incorporation of Scotland with England. CW
14 Charles at Brighthelmstone (Brighton) in Sussex. ECSW
15 Charles sails for France from Shoreham near Brighton in Captain Tattershall's coal boat the Surprise. ECSW
  The Earl of Derby executed at Bolton. HCP2
  A Fifth Monarchist manifesto: A Model of a New Representative recommends the calling of a new Parliament elected by godly congregations. HCP2
  General-at-Sea Sir George Ayscue arrives at Barbados in the West Indies. HCP2
  A greatly reduced Committee of Estates meets at Rothesay on the isle of Bute. The Committee summons a parliament to meet at Finlarig near Killan in Perthshire then dissolves itself. RCRS
16 Charles II and Lord Wilmot land in France. ECSW
  Cromwell secures the reprieve of the accomplices of the Presbyterian conspirator Christopher Love. TRP
  Captain Park seizes fourteen Dutch merchant ships at Carhele Bay in Barbados. CWS
17 Sir George Ayscue summons Lord Willoughby of Parham to surrender Barbados to the Commonwealth. CWS
  Blake and Heane's expedition sails from Weymouth for Jersey. CWS
19 Charles II joins Henrietta Maria and James, Duke of York, in exile in Paris. HCP2
20 Delayed by storms, the Commonwealth expedition arrives off St Ouen on Jersey. CWS
  The Marquis of Clanricarde rejects the Duke of Lorraine's offer to intervene against the English in Ireland because the Irish delegates had exceeded their mandate. HCP2, CIR
21 Sir George Carteret refuses Blake's summons to surrender Jersey. CWS
22 Jersey Royalists routed by the Commonwealth invasion force under Colonel Heane. Sir George Carteret besieged in Elizabeth Castle. CWS
23 Parliament appoints eight commissioners to supervise the settlement of Scotland: Oliver St. John, Sir Henry Vane, John Lambert, Richard Deane, Robert Tichborne, George Monck, Richard Salwey and George Fenwick. HCJ
  At Limerick, Colonel Fennell leads a mutiny against Hugh Dubh O'Neill and demands that he negotiate terms with Ireton. CIR
25 Surrender of the Royalist garrison at Mount Orgueil on Jersey to Colonel Heane. CWS
27 Surrender of Limerick to General Ireton. HCP2
28 Parliament issues a declaration for the incorporation of Scotland into a single Commonwealth with England. HCJ
29 Bombardment of Elizabeth Castle on Jersey begins. CWS
30 Execution of leaders of the defenders of Limerick. HCP2
31 Royalist garrison on the Isle of Man surrenders to a Commonwealth expedition led by Colonel Duckenfield. HCP2


  (Early November) The Marquis of Clanricarde calls a meeting of the Confederate Assembly at Jamestown in County Leitrim. Source: CIR
1 Hugh Dubh O'Neill pardoned for his part in the resistance at Limerick. HCP2
2 Six more guns and three mortars added to the Commonwealth battery bombarding Elizabeth Castle on Jersey. CWS
7 Royalists on Barbados hold a day of thanksgiving after receiving false reports that Charles II had won the battle of Worcester. CWS
9 A direct hit by a mortar shell blows up the powder magazine and a large quantity of stores at the siege of Elizabeth Castle. TCG
  Sir George Ayscue sends a printed report of Cromwell's victory at Worcester to Lord Willoughby, but the Royalists still refuse to surrender Barbados. CWS
11 Clanricarde dismisses the few delegates who attended the Confederate Assembly. CIR
12 Only four Scottish nobles arrive at Finlarig for the meeting of the proposed Scottish Parliament (Lords Loudoun, Callander, Home and Cardros). RCRS
14 Cromwell makes a long speech urging Parliament to set a date for its dissolution and to call an election. TRP
18 The Rump Parliament resolves not to sit beyond 3 November 1654, which would be the fourteenth anniversary of the calling of the Long Parliament. TRP
21 The Earl of Huntly surrenders to Commonwealth forces at Aberdeen. RCRS
  At St Michael in the Azores, Prince Rupert consults his captains regarding the future employment of the Royalist squadron. All agree to sail to the West Indies except Captain Chester of the Swallow, who asks to leave the squadron. PRA
22 Captain Morris leads an attack on a Royalist fort at The Hole (Jamestown) on Barbados and succeeds in spiking the guns and taking thirty prisoners. CWS
26 Death of Henry Ireton at Limerick. ODNB


  (December) Radical preachers John Simpson and Christopher Feake hold a meeting at the Church of All Hallows-the-Great in London to rally support for the millenarian cause. The beginning of the Fifth Monarchist movement. Source: ODNB
1 Sir George Ayscue temporarily reinforced by the arrival at Barbados of the annual Virginia fleet from England. CWS
2 Edmund Ludlow appointed provisional commander in Ireland in Ireton's place. HCP2
3 Lord Balcarres surrenders to Commonwealth forces at Elgin. RCRS
7 Captain Morris captures a Royalist fort at Speight's Bay on Barbados. CWS
  Prince Rupert sails from the Azores with his three remaining ships. PRA
8 Sir George Carteret agrees to open negotiations for the surrender of Jersey. CWS
10 Oliver Cromwell summons a conference of army officers and lawyer MPs to discuss the settlement of the nation. The lawyers, headed by Oliver St John, favour a limited monarchy and propose that the young Henry, Duke of Gloucester, should be made king rather than his elder brothers Charles or James. HCP2, TRP
12 Surrender of Elizabeth Castle on Jersey to General-at-Sea Robert Blake and Colonel James Heane. HCP2
15 Dutch ambassadors arrive in England hoping to negotiate a repeal of the Navigation Act. HCP2
17 The surrender of Castle Cornet on Guernsey completes Blake and Heane's conquest of the Channel Islands. HCP2
26 Parliament appoints a committee to prepare an investigation into reform of the law. PP, HCJ
29 Surrender of Dumbarton Castle. TCW
30 Prince Rupert's squadron arrives at Cape Blanco on the coast of west Africa to make repairs before setting sail for the West Indies. PRA
31 Stand-off on Barbados between Lord Willoughby's Royalist forces and the militia commanded by Colonel Thomas Modyford, who has been in secret negotiations with Sir George Ayscue. CWS


AOI: Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum C.H. Firth and R.S. Raitt (eds), 1911

ATKA: All the King's Armies, Stuart Reid (Staplehurst 1998)

CG: Cromwell's Generals, Maurice Ashley (Oxford 1954)

CII: Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Ronald Hutton (Oxford 1989)

CIR: Cromwell in Ireland, James Scott Wheeler (New York 1999)

CW: Civil War, Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-60, Trevor Royle (London 2004)

CWS: Cromwell's Wars at Sea, John Barratt (Barnsley 2006)

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography

ECSW: The Escape of Charles Stuart after Worcester, Chris Modd (Orders of the day, Volume 33, Issue 4, 2001)

HACD: History and Antiquities of the City of Dublin Walter Harris (Dublin 1766)

HCJ: House of Commons Journal

HCP1: History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate vol. i, S.R. Gardiner (London 1903)

HCP2: History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate vol. ii, S.R. Gardiner (London 1903)

LCW: Leaders of the Civil Wars, 1642-48, Geoffrey Ridsdill Smith & Margaret Toynbee (Kineton 1977)

MPRC: Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers vol iii Eliot Warburton (London 1849)

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

PP: Pride's Purge, David Underdown (Oxford 1971)

PRA: Prince Rupert, admiral and general-at-sea, Frank Kitson (London 1998)

RCRS: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Scotland 1644-1651, David Stevenson (Newton Abbott 1977)

RHCA2: The Regimental History of Cromwell's Army vol.ii, C.H. Firth & G. Davies (Oxford 1940)

RN2: The Royal Navy: a history from the earliest times to the present, vol.ii Sir William Laird Clowes (London 1898)

TCG: The Cromwellian Gazetteer, Peter Gaunt (Stroud 1987)

TCW: The Civil Wars, a military history of England, Scotland & Ireland 1638-60, Kenyon and Ohlmeyer (eds) (Oxford 1998)

TRP: The Rump Parliament, Blair Worden (Cambridge 1974)

< 1650 1652 >