Execution of Archbishop Laud — the Self-Denying Ordinance — the New Model Army — the battle of Naseby — Montrose defeated at Philiphaugh.

January

  (Jan-Mar) Clubmen risings in Shropshire, Worcestershire and Herefordshire. Source: TCW
  (Early January) Lord Goring advances through Hampshire and Surrey with 3,000 horse and 1,500 foot, intending to provoke a Royalist uprising in Sussex. HGCW2, ODNB
1 Execution on Tower Hill of Captain Hotham, condemned for attempting to betray Hull to the Royalists. HGCW2
2 Sir John Hotham executed on Tower Hill the day after his son. HGCW2
  The King appoints the Earl of Glamorgan his special envoy to negotiate with the Irish Confederates in collaboration with the Marquis of Ormond. HGCW2
3 Colonel Ludlow routed at Salisbury by Sir Marmaduke Langdale as Lord Goring's army advances eastwards. CWIH
4 The Book of Common Prayer abolished in favour of a Presbyterian Directory of Worship. HGCW2, AOI
  The House of Lords passes the ordinance of attainder against Archbishop Laud. HGCW2, AOI
6 The Committee for Both Kingdoms recommends the creation of the New Model Army. HGCW2
  Goring's forces plunder Gosport in Hampshire. CWIH
7 The House of Lords state their objections to the disqualification of peers for military command under the proposals for the Self-Denying Ordinance. HGCW2
  Lord Goring at Romsey in Hampshire. CWIH
9 Goring occupies Farnham in Surrey but is unable to maintain his forces there and is obliged to withdraw westwards. HGCW2
10 Execution of William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, on Tower Hill. HGCW2
11 The King orders the arrest of Lords Percy, Andover and Sussex, who had been calling for the opening of new peace negotiations with Parliament. HGCW2
  Prince Rupert attacks Parliament's garrison at Abingdon, but is repulsed by Major-General Richard Browne who orders the execution of five captured Royalist officers who had served in Ireland. HGCW2
  Sir Henry Gage mortally wounded at Culham Bridge near Oxford. ODNB
13 The House of Lords rejects the Self-Denying Ordinance. HGCW2
14 Parliament appoints Lord Inchiquin lord-president of Munster. HCJ, HLJ
  Prince Maurice leaves Oxford to take up his appointment as commander of Royalist forces in Wales and the Marches in place of Prince Rupert. Maurice sets up his headquarters at Worcester. RWE, ODNB
15 Lord Goring's attack on Christchurch in Dorset is repulsed. CWIH
16 Bombardment of Pontefract Castle begins. HOP
20 General Thomas Preston besieges Duncannon Fort in County Wexford. TCW
21 The House of Commons votes for Sir Thomas Fairfax to be commander-in-chief of Parliament's new army, with Philip Skippon as Major-General. A number of officers named as regimental commanders. HGCW2, HCJ
22 Colonel Laugharne drives back the Royalists besieging Cardigan. NUS
27 Sir William Brereton's forces attempt to scale the walls of Chester but are driven back. SGCW
28 The New Model Ordinance sent to the House of Lords. HGCW2
29 Opening of the Uxbridge Treaty negotiations between representatives of the King, Parliament and the Scots. HGCW2
 

February

2 Battle of Inverlochy. The Marquis of Montrose defeats Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck, destroying the power of the Campbells in the Highlands. The Marquis of Argyll flees from the scene of the disaster. Source: HGCW2
9 Lord Gordon defects to Montrose with his cavalry regiment and delivers up the town of Elgin, which he had been charged with defending. SA
11 The Scottish Parliament declares Montrose and his chief supporters to be guilty of treason. HGCW2
12 Sir Lewis Dyve captures Weymouth for the King. HGCW2
14 Sir William Waller ordered to relieve Weymouth; his cavalry, formerly commanded by the Earl of Essex, mutiny at Leatherhead. HGCW2
  (Mid-February) Prince Maurice marches north from Worcester to relieve the Parliamentarian threat to Chester. He gathers all available Royalist forces at Shrewsbury before advancing through north Wales into Cheshire. RWE
17 Ordinance for the New Model Army passed by the House of Lords, proposing the formation of a Parliamentarian army 22,000 strong on a national rather than regional basis. AOI
20 Prince Maurice outmanoeuvres Sir William Brereton's forces in Cheshire and relieves the siege of Chester. RWE
  Sir Marmaduke Langdale and the Northern Horse advance from their headquarters at Salisbury in Wiltshire to ride to Yorkshire and relieve the siege of Pontefract Castle. CRW
  Parliamentarian troops mutiny at Henley in Buckinghamshire over arrears of pay. HGCW2
  Irish rebel Lord Conor Maguire hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. ODNB
21 Parliament reinforces Waller's army with troops from the Eastern Association, but the Association refuses to bear the expense of supplying them whilst stationed away from their own region. HGCW2
22 Ending of the unsuccessful Uxbridge peace negotiations. HGCW2
  Sir John Meldrum captures the town of Scarborough for Parliament; Royalist defenders hold out in the castle. HGCW2
  Sir Thomas Mytton captures the Royalist town of Shrewsbury in Shropshire in a surprise early morning attack. Sir Michael Erneley taken prisoner. MCW1
23 Surrender of Shrewsbury Castle to Sir Thomas Mytton. MCW1
  Langdale and the Northern Horse at Banbury in Oxfordshire. CRW
25 Langdale routs Colonel Rossiter at Market Harborough in Leicestershire. CRW
26 Langdale advances to Newark. Parliamentarian commanders unsure of his objective. CRW
28 Sir Lewis Dyve's Royalists driven from Weymouth when Vice-Admiral William Batten reinforces a neighbouring Parliamentarian garrison and storms the town. HGCW2
  Langdale's Northern Horse arrive at Doncaster in Yorkshire. CRW
 

March

  (Early March) Lord Goring's cavalry move to the vicinity of Exeter where they live on free quarter and plunder. Source: HGCW2
1 Sir Marmaduke Langdale defeats Colonel Lambert at Wentbridge in Yorkshire, temporarily raising the siege of Pontefract Castle. CRW
3 Oliver Cromwell appointed lieutenant-general of horse in Waller's army. HGCW2
5 Charles Prince of Wales goes to Bristol, to preside over his own court and council as captain-general in the West. HGCW2
  1,000 Clubmen assemble on Woodbury Hill in Worcestershire and draw up a Declaration protesting at the depredations inflicted on the civilian population by soldiers of both sides. TWC
8 Major-General Hurry sent into the Highlands against the Marquis of Montrose. RCRS
  Cromwell storms and captures Hillesden House in Buckinghamshire. TCG
9 Prince Rupert joins forces with Lieutenant-General Charles Gerard at Bridgnorth in Shropshire. Rupert hopes to join Prince Maurice in opposing further Parliamentarian advances in Cheshire and Shropshire and relieving the sieges of Beeston Castle and Chester. ODNB, HGCW2
10 The King adjourns the Oxford Parliament. HGCW2
11 Lord Goring, with infantry from Exeter, advances into Somerset to besiege Taunton. HGCW2
  At Devizes in Wiltshire, Waller and Cromwell surprise a party of 400 Royalist Horse on their way to join Goring; only thirty escape. HGCW2
  Prince Rupert at Ludlow in Shropshire. HGCW2
  The Committee for Both Kingdoms orders Scottish and Parliamentarian forces to block Rupert's advance towards Chester, but Rupert is obliged to withdraw in order to deal with a popular uprising in Herefordshire. HGCW2
12 The Earl of Glamorgan receives a warrant from the King empowering him to negotiate a secret treaty with the Irish Confederates. ODNB
13 Sir William Brereton renews the siege of Chester after the departure of Prince Maurice from the region. SGCW
15 Major-General Hurry captures Aberdeen from the Royalists in a surprise attack but is forced to abandon it the following day. RCRS
18 15,000 Clubmen appear before the gates of Hereford protesting at Royalist depredations in the area. HGCW2
  Prince Rupert's forces relieve the siege of Beeston Castle in Cheshire. ECWB
19 Colonel Massie unsuccessfully attempts to recruit the Herefordshire Clubmen to the Parliamentarian cause. HGCW2
  The Committee for Both Kingdoms authorises the impressment of able-bodied men for the new Parliamentarian army. HGCW2
  Duncannon Fort in County Wexford surrenders to General Preston's Confederates after a two-month siege. TCW
21 Parliamentarian troops resume the blockade of Pontefract Castle. HOP
25 The Earl of Glamorgan sets sail for Ireland but is shipwrecked off the coast of Lancashire. ODNB
29 Prince Rupert's troops disarm Clubmen at Ledbury in Herefordshire; three ringleaders hanged. CWH
31 Parliament imposes fixed taxes to finance the New Model Army; the City advances a loan of £80,000. HGCW2
 

April

  (April) 1,400 Scottish infantry leave Ulster and return to Scotland to counter the threat from the Marquis of Montrose. Source: TCW
  (Early April) Prince Rupert marches from Bristol into Herefordshire to suppress an uprising by Clubmen. ATKA
3 Revised version of the Self-Denying Ordinance passed by the House of Lords. The Earls of Essex, Manchester and Denbigh resign their commissions. HGCW2
4 The Marquis of Montrose storms and plunders Dundee then evades Major-General Baillie's Covenanter army and escapes into the Highlands. HGCW2
5 Major-General Skippon takes command of five infantry regiments of the Earl of Essex's army at Reading. HGCW2
  Parliament enacts the Negative Oath, allowing Royalists to renounce the King and come under the protection of Parliament. CDPR
6 Sir Thomas Fairfax, captain-general of the New Model Army, reviews the Parliamentarian cavalry at St. Albans. DBD
9 The Earl of Warwick resigns from the Office of Lord High Admiral. HGCW2
17 Sir William Waller resigns his commission. HGCW2
  Major-General Hurry marches north from Aberdeen in pursuit of the Marquis of Montrose. A1645
19 The office of lord high admiral replaced by a Parliamentary commission of six Lords and twelve members of the Commons. HGCW2
18 Colonel Montgomery reinforces the siege of Pontefract Castle with six hundred Covenanters. HOP
20 Oliver Cromwell ordered to advance to the west of Oxford in order to prevent Prince Maurice from taking the King's artillery to Prince Rupert at Hereford. HGCW2
  Soldiers of a newly-formed infantry regiment of the New Model Army stationed at Abingdon mutiny when Colonel Pickering proceeds to preach a sermon to them. HGCW2
  Lord Aboyne joins the Marquis of Montrose in the Highlands. HGCW2
22 Prince Rupert drives Colonel Massie's forces out of Ledbury in Herefordshire. TGCW
23 The Prince of Wales at Bridgwater in Somerset. Commissioners from the western counties resolve to raise a new Royalist army. The siege of Taunton reinstated by Sir Richard Grenville and Sir John Berkeley. HGCW2
  Lieutenant-General Charles Gerard defeats Colonel Laugharne at Newcastle Emlyn in Carmarthenshire. ODNB
24 Cromwell defeats the Earl of Northampton near Islip and crosses the River Cherwell. HGCW2
  Bletchington House surrenders to Cromwell. The Royalist commander, Francis Windebank, court-martialled and shot on his return to Oxford. HGCW2
  Gerard advances to Haverfordwest in Pembrokeshire. ODNB
25 Gerard captures Picton Castle near Haverfordwest. ODNB
26 Parliament passes an ordinance forbidding laymen from preaching. Fairfax ordered to ensure that the ordinance is strictly obeyed in the army. HGCW2
26 Cromwell defeats Sir Henry Vaughan at Bampton. ATKA
29 Cromwell's summons for the surrender of Faringdon Castle is rejected by Colonel Roger Burgess and his initial attack is repulsed. Lacking siege artillery, Cromwell withdraws. TGCW
  Gerard captures Carew Castle near Pembroke to complete his rapid reconquest of south-western Wales for the King. ODNB
30 Sir Thomas Fairfax marches from Windsor with the main body of the New Model Army to raise the siege of Taunton. HGCW2
  Lord Goring advances from the West with 2,000 horse to reinforce the King's army at Oxford. HGCW2
  Lieutenant-Colonel John Lilburne denied a command in the New Model Army after refusing to take the Covenant. DNB
 

May

  (May-June) Clubman risings in Wiltshire, Dorset and Somerset. Source: TCW
1 Sir Marmaduke Rawdon and his regiment march out of Basing House after the Marquis of Winchester petitions the King to have all non-Catholics removed from the garrison. CWIH
2 Cromwell and Fairfax rendezvous at Newbury. HGCW2
3 Lord Goring arrives at Faringdon Castle near Oxford. HGCW2
5 Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice arrive at Oxford to confer with the King. HGCW2
7 Fairfax at Blandford in Dorset. He receives orders from London to abandon his march to the West and besiege Oxford. TGCW
  The King's army marches from Oxford. TGCW
  Lord Goring captures forty of Cromwell's horse near Burford. TGCW
8 The Royalist high command holds a Council of War at Stow-on-the-Wold. King Charles and Prince Rupert march for the north. Lord Goring with three thousand cavalry goes to cut off Fairfax in the west and continue the siege of Taunton. HGCW2, TGCW
  Colonel Blake repulses a Royalist assault on Taunton. HGCW2
9 Battle of Auldearn. The Marquis of Montrose defeats Major-General Hurry. HGCW2
10 The King's army is joined at Evesham by Sir Jacob Astley with three thousand foot. N1645
  Montrose's victorious troops plunder Elgin in Morayshire. A1645
11 The King's army at Droitwich in Worcestershire. HGCW2
  Relief force from the New Model Army commanded by Colonel Welden raises the siege of Taunton. TGCW
  Sir John Meldrum mortally wounded at the siege of Scarborough Castle. ODNB
14 The King's army marches north from Droitwich. HGCW2
15 The Commissioners of the Admiralty appoint Vice-Admiral William Batten commander of the fleet. HGCW2
  Fifth Confederate Assembly meets at Kilkenny (until 31 May). TCW
17 Lord Goring musters 11,000 troops on Sedgemoor in Somerset. HGCW2
18 Sir William Brereton abandons the sieges of Chester and Hawarden Castle as the King's army advances north. HGCW2
20 Lord Byron meets the King's army at Market Drayton in Shropshire with news of the abandonment of the siege of Chester. The King turns east towards Newark. N1645
  Major-General Hurry breaks out of Inverness with his cavalry to join forces with Lieutenant-General Baillie's advancing Covenanter army. A1645
22 The New Model Army surrounds Oxford and waits for the arrival of the siege train from London. HGCW2
23 Battle of Strathdon: Royalist Highlanders defeat Covenanter forces in north-eastern Scotland. TCW
24 The Scottish commissioners in London complain at the lack of pay and supplies forwarded to Lord Leven's army. HGCW2
25 The Committee of Both Kingdoms orders General Massie to march against Lord Goring, in order to keep Goring's army occupied in the west. HGCW2
  4,000 Dorset Clubmen assemble at Wimborne St Giles and appoint an organised body of watchmen to seize army plunderers. AECW, HGCW2
26 General Massie storms and captures Evesham, breaking up Royalist lines of communication between Oxford and Worcester. HGCW2
  Cromwell ordered to strengthen the defences of the Isle of Ely against a possible attack on the Eastern Association by the King's army. HGCW2
  The King's army at Burton-on-Trent in Staffordshire where news is received of the Parliamentarian attack on Oxford. Orders sent to Lord Goring to reinforce the King's army; Prince Rupert decides to attack Leicester in order to draw Fairfax away from Oxford. N1645
27 Captain Wheatley successfully drives a herd of cattle through the siege lines to reprovision Pontefract Castle. HOP
29 Langdale's Northern Horse cuts off approaches to Leicester and surrounds the town. DBD
30-1 The King's army storms and pillages Leicester. HGCW2
 

June

1 Galvanised by the fall of Leicester, Parliament orders the New Model Army to march north from Oxford against the King. Source: HGCW2
2 5,000 Clubmen gather at Castle Cary in Somerset to petition the Prince of Wales against the depredations of Lord Goring's men. AECW, DBD
3 The Prince of Wales informs the Somerset Clubmen that he has written to Goring expressing his displeasure, but also warns them that they are breaking the law by appearing in such numbers. DBD
4 The Northern Horse threaten to mutiny when the King orders the Royalist army to march south to relieve Oxford. Most return to duty when the King promises to march to defend Yorkshire from the Scots when Oxford is secure. HGCW2
5 Fairfax abandons the siege of Oxford and marches north. HGCW2
  The King's army at Market Harborough. Royalist raiders begin gathering supplies for a relief convoy to Oxford. N1645
7 The King's army advances to Daventry to cover the Oxford relief convoy. HGCW2, N1645
  Fairfax at Newport Pagnell; his officers sign a letter requesting that Parliament appoint Cromwell lieutenant-general of the New Model Army. HGCW2, N1645
9 Parliament grants Fairfax full operational control of his army in the field. HGCW2
  General Massie defeats Shropshire Royalist forces under Sir Thomas Lunsford and Sir Michael Woodhouse near Ludlow. ATKA
10 Parliament authorises Cromwell's appointment as Lieutenant-General of Horse under Fairfax. HGCW2
12 Fairfax's cavalry patrols clash with Royalist outposts on Borough Hill near Daventry. HGCW2
  Lord Leven advances south to Doncaster. The Covenanter army is reduced to 6,500 men by sickness, detachments at the siege of Carlisle and troops recalled to Scotland to fight Montrose. RCRS
13 The King attempts to withdraw to Market Harborough. Colonel Henry Ireton captures the unsuspecting Royalist rearguard. HGCW2
  Oliver Cromwell arrives at Fairfax's camp. HGCW2
  Colonel-General Poyntz takes over from Colonel Sands as commander at the siege of Pontefract Castle. HOP
14 Battle of Naseby: the New Model Army inflicts a decisive defeat on Prince Rupert and the King. Most of the King's artillery and supplies are captured. HGCW2
15 The King and Prince Rupert lead the remnants of the Royalist army to Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire. DBD
16 The House of Lords confirms Cromwell's lieutenant-generalship for a further three months despite the terms of the Self-Denying Ordinance. A similar exemption granted to Sir William Brereton in Cheshire and Sir Thomas Myddelton in north Wales. HGCW2
  The King arrives at Lichfield. DBD
18 Leicester surrenders to Fairfax. HGCW2
19 The King withdraws to Hereford, still hoping to gain support from Ireland and to raise further troops from Wales. HGCW2
20 With the King's army no longer threatening Scotland, Lord Leven and the main Covenanter army marches south and arrive at Mansfield in Nottinghamshire. HGCW2
21 4,000 Royalist prisoners from Naseby and 50 captured standards paraded through London and camped in Tothill Fields. DBD
23 A Royalist council of war at Hereford resolves to raise new troops from Wales and the Marches to replace those lost at Naseby. RWE
26 Prince Rupert leaves Hereford with a detachment of troops to assume command at Bristol. RWE
  The King appoints Sir Marmaduke Langdale governor of north Wales. Langdale ordered to consult with the Marquis of Ormond on means of shipping an army over from Ireland. HGCW2
28 Carlisle surrenders to Covenanters commanded by David Leslie and is occupied by a Scottish garrison. Leslie rejoins the main Covenanter army in England. The Committee for Both Kingdoms orders the Covenanters to march on Hereford and destroy the embryo Royalist army being recruited in south Wales. HGCW2, RWE
  Fairfax at Marlborough in Wiltshire en route to relieve the siege of Taunton. DBD
29 Lord Goring abandons the siege of Taunton and withdraws towards Yeovil. HGCW2
  Aided by local Royalists, Clubmen rout a party of Massie's troops at Sturminster Newton in Dorset. HGCW2, TCG
  Fairfax advances to Amesbury. DBD
  (End of June) The Earl of Glamorgan arrives in Dublin. TCW
 

July

  (July) Publication of the King's private papers captured at Naseby, which inflicts great political damage on the Royalist cause. Source: HGCW2
  (July) Major-General Robert Monro's Ulster army campaigns against the Confederates in Counties Down, Fermanagh and Armagh. TCW
1 King Charles marches from Hereford for Abergavenney, hoping to raise a new army in south Wales. HGCW2
2 Battle of Alford. The Marquis of Montrose defeats Major-General Baillie. HGCW2
  Fairfax at Blandford in Dorset. HGCW2
  Lord Leven and the Covenanters advance from Nottingham towards the Severn Valley. ATKA
3 The King moves to Raglan Castle in south Wales. HGCW2
  Fairfax reaches Dorchester where he conciliates a deputation of Clubmen who demand a pass to present a petition to King and Parliament for the cessation of hostilities. HGCW2
4 Prince Rupert at Bristol. ATKA
5 Fairfax at Crewkerne in Somerset. HGCW2
7 Fairfax drives the Royalists back from Yeovil. Goring concentrates his forces at Langport in preparation for a withdrawal to Bridgwater and sends Lieutenant-General George Porter's cavalry to make a feint towards Taunton. ATKA
8 The Scottish Parliament meets at Stirling to avoid an outbreak of plague in Edinburgh. It resolves to levy a new army to march against Montrose. RCRS
  Lord Leven's Covenanter army, reinforced by an English contingent under Sir John Gell, reaches Alcester in Warwickshire en route to attack Hereford. HGCW2
  General Massie defeats Lieutenant-General Porter's detachment at Isle Moor in Somerset. ATKA, TCG
10 Battle of Langport. Fairfax routs Lord Goring's army. Goring retreats westwards into Devon. HGCW2
11 Fairfax meets leaders of the Somerset Clubmen at Middlezoy. The Clubmen agree not to help the Royalists on the understanding that the Parliamentarians will pay for supplies and commit no offences against the local population. AECW
  (Mid July) Major-General Stradling at Havorfordwest sends troops to destroy the growing corn around the Parliamentarian stronghold of Pembroke. RWE
17 King Charles at Cardiff, where he orders the Glamorganshire commissioners to raise further taxes and another 1,000 recruits. RWE
18 King Charles returns to Raglan Castle and issues orders for money and recruits from Monmouthshire. RWE
21 Surrender of Pontefract Castle to Parliament's Northern Association army, commanded by Colonel-General Poyntz. TCG
  Fairfax storms Bridgwater in Somerset and captures the eastern quarter of the town. HGCW2
22 Prince Rupert confers with the King at Crick House near Chepstow. DRS
23 Bridgwater surrenders to Fairfax after a further two days' bombardment, cutting off lines of communication between the Royalist south-western army and Bristol. HGCW2
  The Covenanters storm Canon Frome in Herefordshire. Colonel Barnard's garrison massacred. DRS
24 The Scottish Parliament moves at Perth after the plague reaches Stirling. The new army musters at Perth. RCRS, HGCW2
25 Scarborough Castle surrenders to Colonel-General Poyntz. HGCW2
  King Charles at Usk in Monmouthshire, where he approves a proposal by the county commissioners to raise irreguar regiments to defend the county against the Covenanters. RWE
29 King Charles at Cardiff to review the recruits he ordered from Glamorganshire. Instead he finds 4,000 irregulars under the local gentry who demand the removal of Lieutenant-General Gerard from command in south Wales. RWE
30 Lord Leven and the Covenanters besiege Hereford, defended by Sir Barnabas Scudamore. HGCW2
31 Bath captured in a surprise attack by Colonel Okey. ATKA
  (End of July) Cardinal Mazarin of France sends Jean de Montereul as an envoy to the Scottish commissioners in London, but in reality to influence negotiations for a settlement between England and Scotland that is favourable to France. HGCW2
 

August

1 Battle of Colby Moor. Colonel Rowland Laugharne advances with Parliamentarian forces from Pembroke to defeat Major-General Stradling near Haverfordwest. Source: MCW1
  At Cardiff, the gathering of irregular Clubmen declares itself the "Peaceable Army" and demands a reduction in local taxes and that English Royalist officers in the region be replaced by local gentry. RWE
2 Fairfax besieges Sherborne Castle in Dorset, defended by Sir Lewis Dyve. HGCW2
3 Leaders of the Dorset Clubmen arrested at Shaftesbury when, encouraged by local Royalists, they threaten to hinder Fairfax's operations. AECW, HGCW2
4 Cromwell disperses a force of 2,000 Clubmen at Hambledon Hill near Shaftesbury. AECW
5 King Charles abandons his plan to recruit a new army in south Wales. Gathering what troops he can, he marches from Wales to the north, hoping to join forces with Montrose. HGCW2, RWE
  Colonel Laugharne storms and captures the Royalist garrison at Haverfordwest. HGCW2
6 The Earl of Glamorgan leaves Dublin for Kilkenny with a warrant from the King to negotiate a secret treaty with the Confederates. ODNB
8 The King's army at Bridgnorth in Shropshire. DRS
11 Parliamentarian siege artillery arrives at Sherborne. HGCW2
15 Battle of Kilsyth near Glasgow. The Marquis of Montrose defeats Major-General William Baillie. HGCW2
  Sir Lewis Dyve surrenders Sherborne Castle to Fairfax. TGCW
  King Charles at Welbeck in Nottinghamshire with 2,200 horse and 400 foot. HGCW2
  (Mid-August) Cardinal Mazarin's envoy Jean de Montereul secretly confers with Scottish commissioners in London regarding the possibility of a separate peace treaty between the Covenanters and the King. HGCW2
16 Montrose occupies Glasgow. HGCW2
17 Sir Robert Stewart and the Lagan army rout Irish cavalry near Sligo. ODNB
18 Montrose moves his army out to Bothwell after finding it difficult to prevent the Highlanders from plundering Glasgow. HGCW2
  The King advances to Doncaster in Yorkshire. HGCW2
  Fairfax marches from Sherborne for Bristol. HGCW2
19 Parliament issues an ordinance to elect elders for a national Presbyterian church in England but the Covenanters are appalled to learn that the church will be subservient to Parliament. AOI, RCRS
  Peace negotiations reopened between agents of the Confederate Assembly and the Marquis of Ormond. HGCW3
20 The King retreats from Yorkshire towards Newark. Colonel-General Poyntz gathers Parliamentarian forces to oppose him in Yorkshire; a force of Covenanter cavalry commanded by David Leslie marches up against him from Hereford. HGCW2
  Unable to advance to Edinburgh because of plague in the burgh, Montrose calls for a new Scottish Parliament to meet at Glasgow in October. RCRS
  Colonel John Dalbier arrives at Basingstoke to begin preparations for the third siege of Basing House. SGCW. CWIH
21 Fairfax and Cromwell reconnoitre the defences of Bristol, defended by Prince Rupert. ATKA
23 Sir Richard Crane, commander of Prince Rupert's Lifeguard, killed during a skirmish at the siege of Bristol. ATKA
  Fairfax's army completes the circumvallation of Bristol. HGCW2
24 The King's army occupies and plunders Huntingdon. HGCW2
25 The Earl of Glamorgan concludes the secret Glamorgan Treaty with the Irish Confederates, promising major concessions to Roman Catholics in exchange for troops to fight for the King in England. TCW, ODNB
28 The King arrives at Oxford. His army is quartered in garrisons around the city. DRS
  Parliamentarians capture a fort at Portishead, cutting off Bristol's link down the River Avon to the Bristol Channel. HGCW2
29 Charles, Prince of Wales, arrives at Exeter. HGCW2
30 The King's army marches from Oxford to raise the siege of Hereford. DRS
  (Late August) Major-General Monro campaigns in Counties Armagh, Monaghan, Longford and Cavan. TCW
 

September

  (Sept-Nov) Clubman uprisings in Berkshire, Sussex, Hampshire, South Wales and Welsh borders. Source: TCW
1 The King's army reaches Worcester on its way to raise the siege of Hereford. DRS
  Lord Leven receives news of Montrose's successes in Scotland; he abandons the siege of Hereford and marches northwards. HGCW2
2(?) Alasdair MacColla leaves Montrose's army to fight the Campbells in western Scotland, taking his remaining Higland troops with him. A1645
4 The King's army occupies Hereford. The governer, Barnabas Scudamore, is knighted; the estates of gentry who co-operated with the Scots are confiscated. HGCW2, RWE
  Fairfax formally summons Prince Rupert to surrender Bristol. ATKA
5 Surrender of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire to Colonel Laugharne. NUS
6 The Marquis of Montrose marches to Dalkeith then turns south towards the border with England. A1645
  Lieutenant-General David Leslie crosses the border into Scotland at Berwick with four regiments of foot and six regiments of horse in pursuit of Montrose. HGCW2, A1645
7 King Charles at Raglan Castle. Gerard is sent to Shropshire and Langdale to Glamorganshire to recruit. DRS, RWE
  The Marquis of Douglas joins Montrose at Galashiels with 1,000 men, but the Earls of Home, Traquair and Roxburgh do not join him as expected. A1645
10 Montrose at Jedburgh where he learns that Leslie has crossed the border. He abandons his advance towards England and marches north-west to Selkirk. A1645
  Storming of Bristol begins. ATKA
11 Prince Rupert surrenders Bristol to Fairfax. ATKA
  Lieutenant-General Leslie joins forces with troops from Lothian at Gladsmuir near Edinburgh, then turns south towards Selkirk. RCRS, A1645
13 Battle of Philiphaugh. Lieutenant-General David Leslie defeats the Marquis of Montrose. HGCW2
14 The King, influenced by Prince Rupert's enemies at court, dismisses him from his service for surrendering Bristol. HGCW2
  Montrose rallies the remnants of his infantry at Peebles then retreats westwards into the hills. A1645
  (Mid September) Encouraged by the French envoy Montereul, the Scottish commissioners in London reach agreement with English Presbyterians (represented by the Earl of Holland) on proposals for a separate peace treaty with the King. The proposals sent to Queen Henrietta Maria in Paris to be communicated to King Charles. HGCW2
  (Mid September) Colonel Dalbier begins bombarding Basing House. CWIH
18 The King sets out from Raglan in another attempt to join with Montrose, not knowing of the defeat at Philiphaugh. The King is accompanied by his lifeguard and the remnants of the Oxford army cavalry. Near Hay-on-Wye, he is rejoined by Langdale and Gerard. HGCW2
20 Colonel Michael Jones storms the outer defences of Chester and begins bombarding the main city walls. SGCW
  Surrender of Picton Castle in Pembrokesire to Colonel Laugharne after a twenty-day siege. NUS
21 A detachment commanded by Lieutenant-General Cromwell occupies Devizes in Wiltshire and besieges the castle. TCG
22 Sir Charles Lloyd surrenders Devizes Castle to Cromwell after a heavy bombardment. TCG
  King Charles at Chirk Castle in north Wales. DRS
23 The King turns from his northward march in an attempt to raise the siege of Chester. HGCW2
  The House of Commons votes to ask Lord Leven's Scottish army to come south and besiege Newark. HGCW3
24 Battle of Rowton Heath near Chester. Colonel-General Poyntz defeats the King's cavalry under Sir Marmaduke Langdale. HGCW2
  Surrender of Lacock House in Wiltshire to a New Model Army detachment under Colonel Pickering. CWIH
  Colonel Norton with local Parliamentarian forces and a detachment from the New Model Army under Major Harrison disperse Hampshire Clubmen at Petersfield. Five Clubmen killed; the ringleaders arrested. CWIH
25 The King retreats from Chester to Denbigh. HGCW2
26 Sir Charles Lucas surrenders Berkeley Castle to Colonel Rainsborough. HGCW2, ODNB
  Lord Byron rejects a summons to surrender Chester. SGCW
28 Cromwell enters the city of Winchester and summons Winchester Castle to surrender. SGCW
30 The Scottish Commissioners in London complain at Parliament's unreliability in paying Lord Leven's troops. HGCW3
  (Late September) Charles, Prince of Wales withdraws from Exeter to Launceston in Cornwall. HGCW2
 

October

4 The King arrives at Newark. Source: HGCW2
  Bombardment of Winchester Castle begins. CWIH
5 Lord Ogle surrenders Winchester Castle to Cromwell. SGCW
6 Fairfax's advance into the west delayed at Chard, Somerset, because of unrest among the soldiers over arrears of pay. HGCW2
8 Cromwell reinforces the siege of Basing House in Hampshire. HGCW2
  The town of Sligo captured by Sir Charles Coote in co-operation with the Lagan army. ODNB, TLA
9 Further negotiations for the surrender of Chester rejected by Lord Byron. SGCW
10 Chepstow surrenders to Colonel Morgan. ODNB
11 Parliament's treasure convoy reaches Fairfax's army; once paid, the soldiers prepare to continue the advance. HGCW2
  Cromwell summons Basing House to surrender, with a warning that no mercy will be shown if the summons is rejected. SECW
12 Papal nuncio Archbishop Rinuccini arrives in Ireland. TCW
  Colonel Laugharne occupies Carmarthen. NUS
13 The King holds a council of war at Welbeck Abbey, north of Newark, where a messenger finally brings Montrose's despatch reporting his defeat at Philiphaugh. The King returns to Newark but appoints Lord Digby lieutenant-general and sends him with Langdale's Northern Horse to join Montrose and attempt to salvage the Royalist cause in Scotland. HGCW2
  The House of Commons complains about the conduct of the Scottish army and demands that the Scots withdraw from their garrisons in northern English towns. HGCW2
14 Cromwell's army storms and sacks Basing House. HGCW2
15 Lord Digby and Sir Marmaduke Langdale defeat Parliamentarian infantry at Sherburn-in-Elmet, between Selby and Leeds, but are subsequently routed by Colonel Copley's cavalry. HGCW2
16 Prince Rupert, accompanied by Prince Maurice, arrives at Newark to try and salvage his reputation after the surrender of Bristol. HGCW2
  The Committee of Estates orders the execution without trial of senior Irish officers captured at Philiphaugh. RCRS
17 The Scottish commissioners in London make tentative proposals for negotiating with the King. HGCW3
  The Catholic Archbishop of Tuam killed during a raid by Covenanter troops from Sligo; among his papers is found a copy of the Earl of Glamorgan's provisional treaty between the Irish Confederates and the King. ODNB
  Fairfax advances to Tiverton in Devon and captures the town and proceeds to bombard the castle. TCG
19 Tiverton Castle surrenders to Fairfax after a lucky shot breaks the chains holding up the drawbridge. HGCW2
20 Fairfax's army takes up winter quarters around Exeter. HGCW2
21 The Royalist Council of War at Newark absolves Prince Rupert and acknowledges that he is not guilty of any failure in courage or fidelity. HGCW2
  The Committee of Estates orders the execution of captured senior Scottish Royalists who had supported Montrose; others are fined, imprisoned or banished. HGCW3
22 Lord Digby's correspondence (captured at Sherburn) read in Parliament, revealing the extent of the King's negotiations with foreign powers. HGCW3
24 Final defeat of the Northern Horse by Sir John Browne on Carlisle Sands. Lord Digby and Sir Marmaduke Langdale escape to the Isle of Man. HGCW2
  Cromwell and Fairfax rendezvous at Crediton, Devon. HGCW2
25 The town of Monmouth surrenders to Colonel Morgan. ODNB
26 After a near mutiny over the King's dismissal of Sir Richard Willys, the governor of Newark, Prince Rupert and most of the King's cavalry officers leave for Belvoir Castle. HGCW2
 

November

1 At Denbigh, Colonel Michael Jones defeats a Royalist force under Sir William Vaughan marching for the relief of Chester. Source: ODNB
3 Royalist outpost at Shelford Manor near Newark stormed by Colonel-General Poyntz and the Northern Association army; the defenders massacred. HGCW2
  The King leaves Newark. HGCW2
4 Royalist garrison at Wiverton Hall near Newark surrenders to Poyntz. ODNB
5 The King reaches Oxford. HGCW2
11 3,000 Clubmen assemble at Bredon Hill near Evesham in Worcestershire. They formally declare for Parliament and form the nucleus of an unofficial militia against the Royalists. TWC
12 The papal nuncio Archbishop Rinuccini arrives at Kilkenny. HGCW3
16 Surrender of Beeston Castle near Chester to the Parliamentarians. SGCW
19 Lord Byron rejects a further summons to surrender Chester and continues to raid the Parliamentarian siege works. SGCW
20 Sir Kenelm Digby signs a treaty with the Pope on behalf of Queen Henrietta Maria. In return for military aid, the Roman Treaty promises even greater concessions for Catholics than the Earl of Glamorgan's treaty. Rinuccini urges that the Roman Treaty be adopted in Ireland. HGCW3
  Lord Goring flees to France. ODNB
26 The Scottish Parliament meets at St Andrews until February 1646. Its main business is the punishment of those who supported Montrose and raising new forces to be sent against him. HGCW3
27 Lord Leven and the Covenanters join Poyntz and the Northern Association army to besiege Newark. HGCW3
 

December

  (December) Most of the cavalry brought by David Leslie into Scotland returns to England. Source: TCW
2 The Marquis of Montrose besieges Inverness. TCW
5 King Charles proposes to negotiate with Parliament (whilst also proposing to negotiate separately with the Scots). HGCW3
8 Prince Rupert returns to Oxford and is partially reconciled with the King, but is no longer accepted as a close adviser. HGCW3
  (Mid-December) Parliamentarian attack on Powderham Castle near Exeter repulsed. TCG
18 Colonel Morgan and Colonel Birch capture Hereford for Parliament in a surprise attack. TCG
20 Archbishop Rinuccini and the Earl of Glamorgan sign a new treaty at Kilkenny (the "Second Glamorgan Treaty"). TCW
23 Parliament and the Scottish commissioners reject the King's proposal to send commissioners to Westminster. HGCW3
  The Scottish Parliament orders the execution without trial of all Irish captives from Montrose's old army. HGCW3
24 The Earl of Glamorgan returns to Dublin hoping to gain Ormond's consent for his new arrangements with Rinuccini. HGCW3
25 Colonels Fleetwood and Whalley despatched to watch the King's forces at Oxford, while Fairfax maintains the blockade of Exeter. HGCW3
26 Charles, Prince of Wales, attempts to concentrate western Royalist forces at Tavistock in Devon. HGCW3
  The Earl of Glamorgan brought before the Marquis of Ormond and charged with treason by Lord Digby. Ormond claims that he knew nothing of Glamorgan's secret dealings with the Confederates. Glamorgan kept in custody. ODNB
 
 

Sources:

A1645: Auldearn 1645: the Marquis of Montrose's Scottish campaign, Stuart Reid (Osprey 2003)

AECW: Atlas of the English Civil War, P.R. Newman (London 1985)

AOI: Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, C.H. Firth and R.S. Raitt (eds), 1911

ATKA: All the King's Armies, Stuart Reid (Staplehurst 1998)

CCW: Confederate Catholics at War 1641-49, Pádraig Lenihan (Cork 2001)

CDPR: The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, S.R. Gardiner (Oxford 1906)

CRW: Cavaliers, the Royalist Army at War 1642-46, John Barratt (Stroud 2000)

CWH: The Civil War in Hereford, Paul Rollinson, www.colbirch.org

CWIH: The Civil War in Hampshire 1642-45, Rev. G. N. Godwin (Southampton 1904)

DBD: The English Civil War Day By Day, Wilfrid Emberton (Stroud 1995)

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography

DRS: Diary of Richard Symonds www.molyneuxs.com

ECWB: English Civil War Battles database, Tim Williams

HGCW2: History of the Great Civil War vol. ii, S.R. Gardiner (London 1889)

HGCW3: History of the Great Civil War vol. iii, S.R. Gardiner (London 1889)

HCJ: House of Commons Journal www.british-history.ac.uk

HLJ: House of Lords Journal www.british-history.ac.uk

HOP: The History of the Ancient Borough of Pontefract, Benjamin Boothroyd (Pontefract 1807)

MCW1: Memoirs of the Civil War in Wales and the Marches vol.i, J.R. Phillips (London 1874)

N1645: Naseby, June 1645, M. Evans, P. Burton and M. Westaway (Battleground Britain 2002)

NUS: A Nation Under Siege, the civil war in Wales 1642-48, Peter Gaunt (HMSO 1991)

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

RCRS: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Scotland 1644-1651, David Stevenson (Newton Abbott 1977)

RWE: The Royalist War Effort 1642-46, Ronald Hutton (London 1999)

SA: Scots Armies of the English Civil Wars, Stuart Reid (Osprey 1999)

SECW: Sieges of the English Civil Wars, John Barratt (Barnsley 2009)

SGCW: Sieges of the Great Civil War, P. Young and W. Emberton (London 1978)

TCG: The Cromwellian Gazetteer, Peter Gaunt (Stroud 1987)

TGCW: The Great Civil War, A.H. Burne and P. Young (London 1958)

TCK: The Confederation of Kilkenny, C.P. Meehan (Dublin 1846)

TCW: The Civil Wars, a military history of England, Scotland & Ireland 1638-60, Kenyon and Ohlmeyer (eds) (Oxford 1998)

TKW: The King's War 1641-47, C.V. Wedgwood (London 1958)

TLA: The Lagan Army, www.ulsterscotsagency.com [no longer available]

TWC: The Worcestershire Clubmen, Worcestershire County Council website [no longer available]

< 1644 1646 >