Links & Resources

Links relating to 17th century history, the Civil Wars, the Commonwealth and Protectorate. If your site or blog is relevant to this era, please contact me to exchange links.

General History

1641 Depositions Online
Fully searchable transcripts and images of the 4,000 depositions submitted by Protestant settlers as evidence of their experiences during the Irish Uprising of 1641. Digitised by Trinity College Dublin Library. Registration required.

Archontology - a web guide to institutional chronology
Directory of rulers, politicians, political bodies, with dates of rule or office and selected biographies. The England and United Kingdom pages include British monarchs, and the Commonwealth 1649-60.

Articles on Historical Cryptography
Analysis by S.Tomokiyo of codes and ciphers used in 17th century England and revolutionary America. Includes ciphers used by Charles I, Thurloe's agents and Charles II in exile.

Association of British Counties
A society dedicated to promoting awareness of the 92 historic (or traditional) counties of Great Britain, as distinct from modern administrative counties. Includes map and gazetteer.

Blackletter Ballads
A collection of 16th and 17th Century ballads, including several Royalist ballads and satires.

British History Online
Digital library of British historical sources developed by the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust. An invaluable, ever-growing resource that includes complete Parliamentary Journals, the Diary of Thomas Burton and the Thurloe State Papers.

Calendar Resources
English Calendar is an online resource by Ian MacInnes for converting dates between the Julian and Gregorian calendars, finding days of the week, regnal years, &c. Calendar Magic by EuroSoft is a comprehensive freeware calendar resource for Windows with many useful functions.

The Cavalier in Exile
Transcription of Margaret Cavendish's memoir of the civil war career and subsequent exile of her husband William Cavendish, Marquis of Newcastle. On the website of Lord Molyneux's re-enactment group.

Cavalier Songs and Ballads of England
A collection of Cavalier ballads, edited by Charles Mackay and originally published in 1862.

Charles the First biography
Online version of Pauline Gregg's biography of King Charles I.

The Oliver Cromwell website
Information about Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658 and his life, legacy and significance. The site is run jointly by the Cromwell Association and the Cromwell Museum, Huntingdon.

Oliver Cromwell - a life in numbers
A new site by Dave Fowler that gives the essential facts, dates and statistics of the life of Oliver Cromwell.

Cromwell Coins
A website dedicated to the coins and medals of the Commonwealth and Protectorate era, 1649-60.

Diary of Ralph Josselin
The diary of the Puritan clergyman Ralph Josselin, covering the period 1643-83.

Diary of Samuel Pepys
The famous diary in the form of a blog. The entry for 1 January 1660 was uploaded on 1 January 2003, with daily instalments following. Readers' annotations and comments on the entries have developed into many lively and informative discussions.

Diary of Richard Symonds
Transcription of the journal kept by the Royalist soldier Richard Symonds covering the campaigns of the King's army from April 1644 to October 1645 and Symonds' antiquarian observations. On the website of Lord Molyneux's re-enactment group.

The Down Survey of Ireland
A project to make available digitized images of all surviving maps from the Down Survey of Ireland (1656-8) and their original written descriptions, alongside data from modern Geographic Information System technology.

Early Modern England: Open Yale courses
Introductory series of lectures on politics, religion and society in Tudor and Stuart England provided free of charge by Yale College.

Early Modern Resources
Extensive collection of links to websites for researchers, teachers and students of early modern history.

English Civil
Struan Bates' site is a hub for articles, discussion, resources, timelines, events and courses on the English Civil War and all things Early Modern.

English Civil War Publications
Reprints of various Civil War documents, pamphlets and news-sheets on the 17th Century Re-enacting and Living History Resources website.

English Dissenters
Bibliography and summaries of English sects and religious dissidents of the Tudor, Stuart and Interregnum periods in Great Britain.

English Monarchs
A comprehensive history of the kings and queens of England, from Saxon times to the present day. The site also includes information on the Scottish monarchy, royal palaces, crown jewels and orders of knighthood.

The English Revolution 1640
Online version of Christopher Hill's essay, first published in 1940, that pioneered the Marxist interpretation of the English Civil War.

Flags of the Interregnum
Flags and heraldry of the Commonwealth and Protectorate 1649-60.

The Hamilton & Montgomery Settlement of 1606
Resource describing the settlement of Ulster and the early history of the Ulster Scots.

History of Parliament Online
The History of Parliament is a research project creating a comprehensive account of parliamentary politics in England, then Britain, from their origins in the thirteenth century.

Historical Podcast Directory
A useful resource providing links to podcasts on historical topics, downloadable in audio or video format. The section on Oliver Cromwell includes lectures by Mark Kishlansky, Barry Coward and David Trim.

Irish History Links
Collection of links to sites and documents dealing with all aspects of Irish history, including the Plantations and the Cromwellian era.

The Irish Story
High quality articles on the history of Ireland. The Early Modern archive includes articles on the 1641 uprising, the Condederate War and the Cromwellian invasion.

Leveller and Digger texts
Key works by the Digger leader Gerrard Winstanley and some important Leveller texts on Tony Gosling's controversial website.

Levellers, Selected Texts
Various Leveller texts originally published as The English Levellers by Andrew Sharp and other Leveller-related items.

Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Tracts
Collection of texts on various subjects published between 1640 and 1740, including several from the Civil War and Commonwealth period. PDF format.

Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics
Texts of key constitutional documents throughout history. Includes S.R. Gardiner's Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution and other documents from the Civil War and Commonwealth period.

Marquis of Montrose Society
A group that aims to increase public awareness of the campaigns and exploits of James Graham, first Marquis of Montrose, and to highlight the major impact that these events had on Scottish history.

National Archives, Civil War military records
A useful starting page for genealogists and others researching the records of soldiers who served during the civil war era, 1642-60.

Puritanism and Liberty: the Army Debates 1647-9
Collection of documents from the Clarke Manuscripts including the Putney Debates, the Whitehall Debates, New Model Army and Leveller manifestos, and various other political and religious documents. On the website of the Online Library of Liberty.

A Quaker Page
Quaker-related links and resources on the Street Corner Society website.

Records of the Parliament of Scotland
Fully searchable database of the proceeding of the Scottish parliament from 1235 to the union of 1707. Sponsored by the University of St Andrews, the site includes direct links from the modern translation to the original manuscript record, explanatory articles, bibliography and glossary.

Reformation History
The history of the early Reformation church and the Covenanter movement in the British Isles.

Society of King Charles the Martyr
An Anglican devotional society dedicated to the cult of S. Charles, King and Martyr.

Thames Watermen in the Century of Revolution
Full online text by Christopher O'Riordan detailing the upheavals of the 17th century from the perspective of London watermen, porters and carriers.

The Trial of Charles I
Summary, selected links and bibliography on UMKC School of Law's Famous Trials website.

The Westminster Assembly Project
A project to make available to scholars and to the general public transcriptions of the texts, minutes, papers and correspondence of the Westminster Assembly of Divines and its members.

Military History

3 Decks
A naval history wiki covering the golden age of sail, 1650-1850.

Anglo-Dutch Wars blog
Jim Bender's blog gives details of the author's research into the Anglo-Dutch Wars, including ships, battles, and officers.

Battlefields Trust
Works for the preservation of battlefields from all periods of British history. The site includes information and maps of several battles from the Civil War era.

Battle of Edgehill Revealed
Darren Harridence's innovative site on the battle of Edgehill offers an interactive exploration of the battlefield and detailed discussion of all aspects of the battle.

Early 17th Century Drill, illustrated and animated
Flash animations by Barry L. Siler explaining 17th Century drill and weapons handling.

Fortified Places
A study of the fortresses built by the French military engineer Sébastien de Vauban (1633-1707) and his contemporaries. Includes information on the defences of Bristol and Worcester and a biography of Prince Rupert's engineer Bernard de Gomme.

Gardiner's Atlas of English History
Includes several maps showing Royalist and Parliamentary areas of control during the 1640s, and also battle maps of Edgehill, Marston Moor, Naseby and Dunbar.

The Geometry of War 1500-1750
The use of geometry and mathematics in early modern warfare.

Kentish Knock Company
Research on the history of warship design, focusing on the Anglo-Dutch Wars.

Nafziger Collection of Orders of Battle
Orders of battle from 1600 to 1945 with over 7,000 individual .pdf files including many OOBs and other documents relevant to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Part of the US Army's Combined Arms Research Library (CARL).

Naseby Battlefield Project
An organisation working to promote awareness of the battle of Naseby and to enhance visitor facilities at the battlefield itself. The site includes a detailed account of the battle.

The Pike and Shot Society
Founded in 1973, the Pike and Shot Society is an international organisation that promotes interest in the military history of the Early Modern Period. It publishes the bi-monthly journal Arquebusier as well as specialist books, monographs and booklets.

Scot Wars
Scottish military history and re-enactment portal with details of battles fought in Scotland or involving Scottish troops during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Siege Warfare 1494-1648
Detailed description of the history and methods of early modern siege warfare by Barry L. Siler.

The Slow Match Web Site
Research into recipes for making slow match solution to fire matchlock muskets.

The Thirty Years War
Summaries of the military and political developments of the Thirty Years War (1618-48) - the European background to the British Civil Wars.
As well as general information on 17th century fortification and sieges, David Flintham's site includes a biography of the French military engineer de Vauban and a detailed description of the defences of London during the English Civil War.

Local Interest

Civil War in Exeter
Details of the three sieges of Exeter, 1642-6.

Civil War in Hereford
Article by Paul Rollinson on the website of the Colonel John Birch re-enactment society. The site also contains a transcription of Colonel Birch's military memoirs.

Civil War in Lincolnshire
Transcriptions and links to material relating to Lincolnshire during the civil war era, including an extensive chronology. Part of the Bourne Archive by R.J. Penhey.

Civil War in Nottinghamshire
Text written by Robert Mellors in 1908 on the Nottinghamshire Historical and Archaeological website.

Civil War Oxford
An innovative new site by Vanessa Moir which explores Oxfordshire during the English Civil War.

Civil War in Worcestershire (PDF format)
Aspects of the Civil Wars on Worcestershire, including the Worcestershire clubmen and the Battle of Worcester 1651.

Battle of Worcester Society
A society for the advancement of knowledge about the battle of Worcester and other civil war events around the city of Worcester and the county of Worcestershire.

Castles of Wales and the Civil War
Details of the Royalist strongholds of Wales during the Civil Wars.

Fairfax and the Civil War in the West Riding of Yorkshire
Detailed site dealing with Fairfax and his campaigns in Yorkshire during the First Civil War.

The Garrsion of Gloucester in the Civil War
Article by Russell Howes: PDF download on Gloucester Civic Trust website.

North-Eastern Campaign 1644
The military campaign in the north-east of England, leading to the Battle of Marston Moor and the storming of Newcastle.

Interactive Map of Early Modern London
Interactive version of the Agas map depicting late 16th- and early 17th-century London.

Old Maps of London
Online collection of maps of London from the mid-16th to early 20th centuries. Includes "A Plan of The City & Environs of London as Fortified by Order of Parliament 1642/43".


The 1640s Picturebook
Costume & Stuff from the English Civil War.

British Army Lineages
A blog that explores the lineages of the regiments and corps of the British army, concentrating on the period from the Restoration to the death of Queen Anne, 1660-1714.

Early Modern Warfare Inquiry
A blog about the mechanics of warfare during the Renaissance and Early Modern period, with an emphasis on the role of pikemen.

Eastern Association
Created by James Holloway, Eastern Association is an ongoing narrative of one family's journey through the English Civil War, told with letters, journals, newsbooks, and original documents.

History of Parliament
The blog of the History of Parliament project, with posts highlighting the latest research.

Hoydens and Firebrands
Roaring ladies who write about the Seventeenth Century.

Mercurius Politicus
A blog by Nick Poyntz about early modern books, history and culture based upon the author's research into Commonwealth newsbooks.

Reporting the English Civil War
This blog brings you the latest daily news from the developing English Civil War, beginning at the battle of Edgehill in October 1642. The posts are extracted from genuine contemporary reports and newsbooks.

Wars of Louis Quatorze
Military history of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

Re-Enactment groups

Colonel John Birch
His Regiment of Foote: includes a transcript of Birch's military memoirs and an account of the siege of Hereford.

The Earl of Northampton's Regiment of Foote
A founding regiment of the Sealed Knot society that now has more than 100 members and fights with Prince Rupert's Tercio in the Royalist Army.

Earl Rivers' Regiment of Foote
A regiment of the Palatine's Tertio of The Sealed Knot Society, based at Donnington Castle in Newbury, Berkshire.

English Civil War Living History Resources
How to make and source things 'mid 17th century -- an essential resource for ECW re-enactors.

The English Civil War Society (ECWS)
Active for more than 30 years, the ECWS is a leading re-enactment group. comprising the King's Army and the Roundhead Association. which authentically recreates 17th century military life in Britain.

Lord Molyneux's Regiment
Re-enactment site featuring a wealth of transcriptions of letters and documents from the Civil War era.

Marquess of Winchester's Regiment
Long-established regiment of foot in the English Civil War Society, featuring military re-enactment and living history displays. Aymez Loyaulté.

Tower Hamlets Trayned Bands
Re-enactment site featuring a history of the London Trained Bands and some excellent photographs by John Beardsworth.

The Wardour Garrison
A living history society that recreates 17th century crafts and skills and aims to give visitors a flavour of both domestic and military life.

John Beardsworth
Professional photographer whose online portfolio includes superb atmospheric photographs of re-enactors in character and in action.


Age of Glory
Established in 2000, Age of Glory is the US stockist for 28mm wargame miniatures from Empress Miniatures, RedStar Miniatures, Crusader Miniatures, and Imprint Models.

Back to Inverlochy
A wargamer's blog to reconstruct the battle of Inverlochy, February 1645.

Battle Chronicler
A program to make graphical battle reports for tabletop wargames. Currently under development in its first beta release and offered free of charge.

English Civil War scenario for Civ5
An ECW mod for Sid Meier's Civilization 5. Play as Royalist, Parliamentarian, Covenanter or Confederate faction on a custom-made map of the Three Kingdoms.

For King or Country
A mod for players of Medieval Total War 2 that depicts campaigning and battles of the English Civil War.

For Ye Kinge
"A Cavalier approach to ECW Wargaming".

The Gentleman's Wargames Parlour
Gaming forum with knowledgeable discussion of military history and photographs of tabletop armies. The Sir Philip Skippon Snooker Room features 17th century wargaming.

In Red-coat Rags Attired
William Linhart's blog on wargaming the civil wars, with a particular focus on campaigns on the Celtic fringe 1638-90.

The Perfect Captain
Free, downloadable boardgames, miniatures rules, and campaign games for various historical periods. Very Civile Actions is a card-based system for the English Civil War.

Pike and Shot Campaigns 1494-1698
Slitherine Games' outstanding tactical, turn-based computer game, focusing on the 16th century wars in Italy, the Thirty Years War, the English Civil War and the Great Turkish War.

Project Auldearn 1645
A wargamer's blog of research into the Marquis of Montrose's Auldearn campaign.